Effects of praise and reprimand on academic performance of extraverts and reprimand on academic performance of extraverts in kiswahili. the case of Gituru secondary school
Kiiru, Robinson Mwangi
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of praise as opposed to those of reprimand on the learning of Kiswahili in adolescent extraverts and introverts, and, to determine how these effects compare to the effects found in the group that was not given these treatments. A random sample of 96 subjects was used and half of the subjects were extraverts and the other half were introverts. A 3 x 2 factorial design was adopted for this study. This was to find out whether the three levels, namely, praise, reprimand and control group ( no treatment group) would interact with the two types of personality namely extraverts and introverts, to affect learning performance in Kiswahili. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure extraversion-introversion tendencies. Written comments were used to effect praise or reprimand treatments, and control groups were neither praised nor reprimanded: they simply received equivalent amount of practice alone. Kiswahili Recall Tests were to measure the academic performance of extraverts and introverts. It was found that both praise and reprimand were equally effective in motivating the academic performance of extraverts and introverts. Moreover, the performance of introverts was significantly higher than that of most control groups (no praise, no reprimand). Pair-wise t-tests confirmed that the introverts (Praised and reprimanded) did differ significantly from the controls at .05 level of significance. Extraverts seem to differ from introvert when they are in the control group. They do not seem to suffer so much performance difference as is found when introverts are in the control group. This is reflected in the findings obtained from pair - wise t- test in the main null hypotheses two (H02), three (H03), five (H05) and six (H06). The findings of the present study which was done with adolescent extraverts an introverts to some extent support findings of previous related studies done with children. In the post hoc hypotheses, the general findings was the various treatments (praise and reprimand) produced higher scores than the control groups. This is reflected in post hoc hypothesis three (H03), six (H06) and eight (H08), and these findings can also be explained in terms of positive or negative reinforcement effects enhancing performance in these treatment groups. The only exception to this general finding was obtained when comparing introverts praised and extraverts in the control group (H07). Here the difference between the treatment and the control group though in the right direction, was not statistically significant. This finding was explained in terms of the extraverts in the control group having an inner supply of motivation (intrinsic motivation) hence, their scores did not fall too far below those of the treatment group, hence, the non-significant differences.