Factors influencing the use of visual aids in pre-schools in Asego division of Homa Bay district
Aila, H. Phillip
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The study investigated the factors affecting the use of visual aids (non-projected) among pre-school teachers in Asego Division, Homa Bay District. The objectives of the study were: To identify the extent of use of various types of visuals; to identify factors that led to the use of teaching materials among pre-school teachers; to compare and contrast the usage of visual aids in urban, rural, private and public schools, to compare and contrast the usage of visual aids according to training levels of teachers; to determine the strategies used in acquiring the visual aids and; to identify the problems that the teachers experienced as they acquired the materials and to find out if pre-schools had stores for keeping visual aids. The study was guided by two theories. These were: Piagetian cognitive development theory with reference to concrete operational stage and systems approach to classroom teaching. Literature review cited studieson the importance of the use of visual aids in the Western World and in Kenya. The survey method and ex-post facto research design were used to collected information pertaining to pre-school teachers' use of visual aids. Pre-school teachers' questionnaire and obseravtion schedule were the main instruments for data collection. Materials used to bring about improvement in children's understanding of class activities (subjects) were the independent variable. These were controlled by (a). location of the school (urban or rural) (b). experience of the teachers (c). teachers' professional qualification (d). teachers academic qualification (e). sponsornship of the school (private or public) (f). teachers' demographic information (age). The dependent variable was improvement in understanding the activity taught using adequate aids. The survey was responded to by 36 teachers who were drawn from 70 randomly sampled pre-schools in Asego Division, Homa Bay District. The questionnaire had three parts. Part one had 6 items which elicited information on personal characteristics of the respondents. Part 2 had five open-ended items which required the respondents to name: why they liked using visual aids as they were teaching, what bothered them as they used visual aids, sources of visual aids, factors that hindered the use of visual aids, factors that hindered the use of visual aids and types of visual aids they used at their schools. Part 3 had 40 structured items which were to measure attitudes, opinions, opinions and perceptions of the pre-school teachers. Besides the questionnaires, an obseravtion schedule was used to complement data collecetd by questionnaires. Thirty-six teachers were drawn from 70 randomly sampled pre-schools in Asego Division, Homa Bay District. The results of this study indicated that the majority of the teachers were below thirty-one years of age and were mostly form four leavers. Many of them were DICECE trained who had mainly taught in 1-3 schools. Most of them worked half day. Most of the visual aids were taken to schools by pre-school children. The use of visual aids was hindered by lack of storage facilities, finances, lockable doors and windows, time for material development, commitment of education staff, security and co-operation by community members.