Marketing Mix and Adoption of Improved Sanitation Products among Rural Households in Magarini, Kilifi County Kenya
Khasaya, Muteshi Hilda
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Sanitation can be considered a private good at the same time a public good, adoption involves social behaviour change, hence can be termed as a social good. Social marketers are playing a great role in changing social behaviors to ensure product adoption. Social marketing is gaining momentum in Governmental and Non-profit institutions for marketing their services, Social marketing techniques are being applied in important areas such as provision of safe drinking water.This study sort to establish the relationship between marketing mix strategies and adoption of improved sanitation, and how income and payment options moderate this relationship in rural Magarini, Kilifi County. The specific objectives were:-To determine the effect of product attributes on adoption of improved, to assess the effect of price on adoption of improved sanitation , to determine the effect of promotion on adoption of improved sanitation, to establish the extent to which distribution channels affects adoption of improved sanitation, to determine the moderating effect of households levels of income on the relationship between marketing mix and adoption of improved sanitation, and finally to determine the moderating effect of payment options on the relationship between marketing mix and adoption of improved sanitation. This research was guided by the classical theories of demand and supply, the theory of consumer choice, the marketing mix concept and the 4As of rural marketing. The study adopted a descriptive research design, with a target population of 13,200 households; stratified sampling was used to get 375 households spread across various locations as sampling units. Data was collected using questionnaires administered. Data analysis involved the use of both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Multiple regression analysis was also used to establish the relationship between 4Ps and adoption of improved sanitation as well as the change in R2 with introduction of income and payment options as a moderator. Findings indicate that there is potential of 75% market for improved sanitation in Magarini, an affordable improved toilet should cost KES 6,000 and below, community meetings are ideal means of communications, friends and relatives play a role in influencing adoption of improved sanitation products. The research concluded that all the 4ps are significantly influencing adoption and both income and payment options are significant moderators. The research has recommended introduction of flexible payment options as a way of increasing adoption, further it has also recommended the utilization of community volunteers as sales agents. There is a further recommendation that research should be conducted to develop an affordable improved sanitation product approximately costing KES 6,000 for the bottom of the pyramid in rural Kenya.