Principals’ Supervision of Teachers and Students’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Schools in Migori County, Kenya
Okoth, Peres Akinyi
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Supervision by the principals is critical to ensure effective curriculum delivery, this result in quality education which is determined by students’ performance in national examination. Therefore, this study categorized schools into High Performing Schools (HPS) and Low Performing Schools (LPS) according to KCSE examination mean scores. Hence the title of the problem was; Principals’ Supervision of Teachers and its relationship to students performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in public schools in Migori Sub-county. The purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency principals engaged in supervising teachers for effective teaching and learning in each category of the schools. Objectives which guided this study were; first was to find out how often principals engaged in supervisory activities in High and low performing schools; second, was to identify methods principals used to ensure lessons attendances. Then the third one was to investigate challenges principals experience in supervising teachers and lastly to find solutions to the challenges. The research was guided by McGregor Theory X and Theory Y which were sets of assumptions about behaviour of people at work. The study was to find out supervisory activities the principals would use to make individual teachers who were workers with different behaviours at schools teach effectively. The research was descriptive study, which applied survey design to collect data. The target population was thirty-seven (37) public secondary schools in Migori Sub-County. Stratified random sampling was used to achieve the desired representations which were High and Low performing schools according to KCSE mean scores. Respondent were all four (4) principals of HPS category and ten (10) out of thirty-three (33) of LPS, teachers from HPS were 22 out of 74 and LPS 79 out of 264. Pilot study was conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of the instruments and data was obtained by questionnaires for principals and teachers. Descriptive statistics were applied where tallying was used to get the number of respondents who gave same response per item counted then percentages calculated. Tables, graphs and pie charts were used to present data per the objectives. It was found that principals of High Performing Schools (HPS) were conducting nearly all supervisory activities more often than the ones of Low Performing Schools (LPS). Checking lesson plan and notes, lessons observations and conducting in-service training were some which were always done hence contributed to high performance in KCSE. On the other hand, professional negligence and negative attitude of teachers towards supervision were mentioned more by principals and teachers of LPS than the ones of HPS. The study recommended in-service training on supervision of teachers for principals immediately after appointment and whenever new innovations in curriculum take place. The study also recommended sensitization of teachers on importance of principals’ supervision of them and preparation of teaching records that were for their professional development.