Constraints to Exercise Adherence and Negotiation Strategies among Clients at Selected Fitness Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya
Kinuthia, Stanley Kagunda
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The positive association between taking part in regular exercise activities and enhanced health benefits have been widely illustrated and documented and depend on continued participation. Despite this, most people are deficiently active or totally latent, with over a half of the individuals who begin an exercise routine dropping out within the initial six months. While various factors hinder adherence to exercise programmes, strategies to overcome these hindrances are of great importance in promoting sustained participation in exercise. This study assessed the constraints to exercise adherence and negotiation strategies among clients of selected fitness centres in Nairobi County, Kenya. A cross-sectional analytical quantitative research design was used where information was collected from clients enrolled at selected fitness centres across the County (N = 382). Constraints were assessed using Constraints Scale while negotiation strategies were measured using the Negotiation Scale Questionnaire. The conformity rate was 299 (78.3%), males were 160 (41.9%) and females 139 (36.4%). A majority of those conforming were in the age groups of 31-40 (22.8%), 21-30 (22.5%) and 41-50 (19.9%). The findings indicated that there was a positive correlation between conformity status and gender (rs = .10, df =381, p = .043), with males associated with more conformity to recommended exercise for general health. Spearman’s correlation further indicated significant relationships between: interpersonal constraints and gender (rs = .13, df =381, p = .011) and both structural (rs = .12, df =381, p = .025) and intrapersonal (rs = .10, df =381, p = .047) constraints and level of education. Interpersonal coordination had a significant inverse relationship with gender (rs = -.13, df =381, p = .015) and level of education (rs = -.11, df =381, p = .030) respectively. Mann-Whitney U test results showed significant differences between gender for both conformity status (Mdn = 1, U = 16679, Z = -2.020, p =.043, r = .10) and interpersonal constraints (Mdn = 3.67, U = 15500, Z = -2.545, p =.011, r = .13). Results also showed that males utilized interpersonal coordination negotiation strategies more than females (Mdn = 3.00, U = 15615.5, Z = -2.43, p = .015, r = .12). Further, Kruskal-Wallis H test results showed significant differences between conformity status and both age (H (5) = 65.66, p < 0.001) and level of education (H (4) = 14.99, p = .005) categories. Structural (H (4) = 12.54, p = .014) and interpersonal (H (4) = 13.92, p = .008) constraints also had significant differences across levels of education. Besides, the findings indicated significant differences for interpersonal coordination (H (5) = 23.761, p <0.001), financial resources (H (5) = 13.083, p = .023) and skills acquisition (H (5) = 23.310, p < 0.001) negotiation strategies across age groups. In addition, there were significant differences for interpersonal coordination across levels of education (H (4) = 14.798, p = .005). Indications were drawn from the results on the need for proprietors, managers and supervisors, fitness instructors, administrators and potential entrepreneurs to review their training programmes, activities and activity areas to help eliminate perceived constraints by their clients to foster adherence. Further, clients’ education is important in enhancing their awareness to negotiate and overcome exercise constraints.