Teacher- preparedness in integrating information and communication technology in instruction in lower primary schools in Nyamira County, Kenya
Isaboke, Harriet Gesare
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The potential benefits of ICT integration in teaching and learning in schools have been extensively discussed in the academic literature worldwide. In recent years in Kenya, there has been rapid expansion in integration of ICT in primary school education. The Government of Kenya has further put in place many initiatives to enhance the same. However, studies show that ICT has not been fully adopted in the teaching and learning environment in most primary schools. Many researchers argue that installation of technological devices and infrastructure will not automatically lead to integration of ICT in schools unless we address the teacher - factor that largely influences integration of ICT in schools. It is on this premise that this study was based to investigate teacher- preparedness for the integration of ICT in teaching lower primary school pupils in Borabu sub-county. Technology acceptance model by Davis (1986) was used to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive Survey design. The target population was 34 lower public primary schools in Borabu Sub-County, 34 head teachers and 102 lower school primary teachers. The study employed stratified random sampling technique to sample lower public primary schools. Purposive Sampling technique was used to sample head teachers and lower primary teachers. The sample size was 41 respondents comprising of 10 head teachers and 31 lower primary school teachers, all samples equivalent to 30% of their total population. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used as data collection instruments. Test-retest reliability was used to establish reliability of the instruments using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient test. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive analysis such as means and standard deviations. The qualitative data collected from the interviews was analysed using content analysis technique and presented thematically. The study conducted a multiple regression analysis to test the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. The study established that teachers’ attitude, teachers’ training, teachers’ teaching experience and teachers’ level of self efficacy had a positive and significant effect on the integration of ICT in teaching-learning. The study concluded that teachers had a low level of ICT use for educational purpose. The findings reveal that teachers had positive attitudes towards use of ICT but were not ready to use them due to lack of appropriate skills and knowledge. Majority of teachers had been trained in basic computer literacy at certificate level but lacked competence on how to use ICT in teaching-learning. Teachers with more teaching experience had low use of ICT in instruction. Teachers had low levels of self efficacy due to lack of ICT knowledge. The study recommends that there is need to train all teachers specifically on how to use ICT in instruction, this can be achieved by having teacher training curriculum with content on ICT pedagogy. Availability of ICT infrastructure will not automatically lead to ICT integration in schools, there is need for the Ministry of Education to address teacher’s attitudes toward ICT use in teaching. The Ministry of Education should provide in-service training programmes in ICT for teachers especially those with more working experience, this will help them change their attitudes, equip them with ICT skills and increase their levels of self efficacy in ICT. Teachers need to enhance their ICT skills regularly and stay up to date through continual professional development. Schools should play a leading role to implement ICT at the school with self help initiative. Further research is needed to establish how prepared the primary teacher trainers are in preparing primary school teachers in ICT integration in instruction.