School factors influencing the frequency of teaching of physical education in lower primary classes in Laikipia County, Kenya
Githaga, Elizabeth Muthoni
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Physical education is concerned with the teaching of skills, acquisition of knowledge and development of attitudes through movement. The main purpose and objectives of this study was to find out school characteristics influencing the frequency of teaching of physical education in lower primary classes based on the variables: frequency of teaching of physical education in early childhood education, type of school (public or private) and its influence to frequency of PE lesson in early childhood education, influence of availability of physical facilities on frequency of teaching PE, teachers‟ and head teachers‟ attitude, gender and qualifications on the frequency of teaching of physical education in lower primary school classes in Laikipia East Sub County. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner‟s Ecological Systems Theory which considers the influences on a child‟s development within the context of the complex system of relationships that form his or her environment. Using the descriptive survey design, the study specifically targeted 62 primary schools. A sample of 19 (30%) were head teachers and 57 (30%) out of 213 lower primary school teachers were selected for study. To obtain the required data, the study used questionnaires for headmasters and teachers and observation. Piloting was done in 4 four primary schools and items in the study instruments validated for their relevance against the set objectives while the test-retest method was used to ensure consistency of the instruments. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques were done for this study because both approaches complement each other. Descriptive research method was used for qualitative data, where common themes were obtained in data collected and clustered in a patterned order so as to identify variables that depict general concepts and differences. On the other hand, the quantitative data was analyzed with the aid of SPSS, a statistical tool for data analysis. The study was informed that high frequency of teaching physical education to early grade learners has immense benefits. However, the study established that physical education is not implemented as per the policy guidelines of the Ministry of Education due to lack of adequate physical education facilities and resources in primary schools.