School based factors affecting implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in primary schools in Homa Bay County, Kenya
Onyango, Ochieng Tobias
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In Kenya, the method used to determine whether the general objectives of a subject are being achieved is through learner's performance in national examinations. For the last five years Ndhiwa Sub County has recorded low mean scores in Kiswahili that range between 36.62 marks to 40.20 out of 100 marks. These low mean scores in Kiswahili has been attributed to poor implementation of Kiswahili curriculum by education stakeholders. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how school based factors influence implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County. This study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the adequacy of teaching and learning resources for implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County; to find out the qualification and adequacy of Kiswahili teachers for implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County; to establish ways in which teaching methods influence implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County; to find out teachers‟ and learners‟ attitudes towards Kiswahili subjects in primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County. The study employed descriptive survey research design. This research targeted all the 156 primary schools, 156 head-teachers, 1147 teachers and 4180 class eight pupils. Stratified random sampling was used to select the schools per division and purposive sampling was used to select head teachers while simple random sampling was used to select teachers and pupils from the sampled schools. Piloting of the questionnaires and interview schedules was done in three primary schools. Reliability was done using test-retest method and comparison between the two scores was done using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r). Validity of the two instruments was examined by research experts from the Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies of Kenyatta University. Data were collected using questionnaires for pupils and teachers, and interview schedule for head teachers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Quantitative Data were coded and then analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and results presented using mean, percentages and frequency distribution tables. Qualitative data were organized into themes and categories, and findings presented in the form of tables. The study established that most schools had inadequate teaching and learning resources and none of the schools met the pupil/ text book ratio of 1:1. Ninety one percent (91%) of teachers were trained and qualified to teach in primary school, however 51% of teachers were over worked teaching more than 35 lessons per week. Teacher/pupil ratio was 1:50 and hence required more teachers. Most (38.6%) teachers preferred to use question and answer method because it gave immediate feedback. As for the pupils, 74.9% of them liked discussion method as it enabled them to learn from each other. Teachers generally had a positive attitude towards Kiswahili as a subject but the pupils were found to have negative attitude towards Kiswahili due to mother tongue influence at home.