Resource and pedagogical constraints to teaching social studies at Kerugoya school for the hearing-impaired
Mukangu, Gabriel Muthike
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The advent of the 8.4.4 system of education had Geography, History and Civics integrated to form Social studies (S.S) in primary. schools. This implied that content, resources and methods of teaching the subject had to undergo some changes. This posed a problem to the teaching of S.S to the hearing-impaired (HI) pupils because resources and methods were to be adapted. This was further complicated by the variability of the HI pupils in Language and Communication difficulties. Parents of the HI pupils noted the poor performance in this subject. The study was mainly concerned with resource and pedagogical constraints to teaching S.S at Kerugoya School for the H.I pupils in Kirinyaga district. The researcher investigated the S.S teaching methodology, learning resources, learning activities and methods teachers used to assess H.I pupils. A descriptive case study design was adopted to investigate the resource and pedagogical constraints encountered in the school. The study used seven (7) S.S teachers and eighty (80.) H.I pupils purposively selected in the upper primary school section. This was a total of eighty eight (48.35%) of the school population. The data collecting instruments were researcher-made and included questionnaire, interview schedule and observation guideline. The result of correlation coefficient was 0.8 which was above the one set in the proposal at 0.7. The questionnaire for S.S teachers had twenty-three (23) items. The interview schedule also for the teachers had ten (10) items. It dealt with areas covered in the teachers' questionnaire to probe and counter-check information provided through the questionnaire. The pupils were mainly observed in the course of teaching/ learning process. The data collected was categorized, ordered, coded.- and then tabulated. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics where findings were presented using tables of frequency distributions and percentages. Results of the study revealed in part that teaching/ learning resources were available but inadequate. The S.S teachers in the school employed teachercentred pedagogical approaches due to time constraint. Both S.S teachers and their H.1 pupils encountered various constraints such as communication barriers, abstract content, wide S.S syllabus and limited time allocated for the teaching of the subject. Based on the findings, it is recommended that emphasis should be placed on pupil-centred methods which help pupils learn better as they interact with learning resources.