Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated From Patients in Nakuru Level 5 Hospital, Kenya
Gachuhi, George Tibi
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Urinary tract infections (UTI) are bacterial infections encountered in the hospital and community and is preventable. It is among bacterial infection encountered with increasing antibiotic resistance to uropathogens, although there is availability of antibiotics. Despite the wide spread of antibiotics, it remains the common bacterial infections. Antibiotic susceptibility testing therefore provides information that allows clinicians to select the most appropriate antimicrobial drugs. Over the years, the UTIs antimicrobial resistance patterns have been changing. The study was carried out to establish the prevalence of bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns among the study population. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatients and inpatients presenting with symptoms of UTI. Purposeful sampling was used to obtain 385 respondents. Mid-stream urine sample were obtained from respondents using sterile bottles and bacterial isolates identification was done using biochemical tests. Culture and sensitivity pattern of uropathogens were determined using disc diffusion method. A questionnaire was administered to consenting respondents and data associated with risk factors was collected and analyzed at ɑ=0.05. Out of 385 urine samples 112 (29 %) patients were confirmed positive for UTI. The prevalence of UTI was higher among females (62.1 %) compared to males (37.9 %). Escherichia coli 66 (55 %) was the most predominant followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 12 (10 %), coagulase negative staphylococci 25 (20.9 %), Staphylococcus aureus 11 (9.2 %) and Proteus mirabilis 6 (5 %). Antimicrobial profiles of E. coli strains showed the following susceptibility pattern to nitrofuratoin (100 %), cefotaxime (86.3 %), ciprofloxacin (83.3 %), gentamicin (81.7 %), ampicillin (45.3 %) nalidixic acid (48.5 %) and cotrimoxazole (44.1 %). Further 85% of the isolates were observed to be multidrug resistant, limiting treatment of UTIs with routinely used antibiotics. Hence, there is need for constant monitoring of antibiotic resistance for better management of patients on antibiotic treatment. In addition, the collected data could be use in determination of trends in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and therefore assisting in policy formulation on the currently used antibiotics for management of UTIs.