Cytokines Associated with Antiretroviral Induced Hepatotoxicity in People Infected With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Northwest Region of Cameroon
Abongwa, Lem Edith
Nyamache, Anthony Kebira
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The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has enabled HIV-1 infected people to live long and fruitful lives. Since drug and viral mediated toxicities are hallmarked by a modulation of patient’s cytokine profiles, we assessed the impact of ART on plasma cytokine profiles of HIV-1 patients. Blood samples were collected from 68 HAART naïve HIV-1 patients at baseline (D0), 30 days (D30) and 180 days (D180) following HAART initiation. Serum levels of Alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) was analysis enzymatically.Human Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines were measured using a cytometric bead array assay. Data were analyzed using Graph pad prism 6 and SSPS.There was a significant increased (p<0.001) in the mean serum levels of both ALT and AST corresponding with the treatment duration.A negative correlation was observed between CD4+ T cell counts and serum levels of either ALT (-0.522, p=0.000) or AST (-0.505, p=0.000). The prevalence of hepatotoxicity increased significantly (P =0.000) and was found to be 0(0.0%), 34(50.0%) and 47(69.1%) at D0, D30 and D180 respectively. Mean IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A and TNF-α cytokines were higher in patients with hepatotoxicity compared to patients with no hepatotoxicity at D30 and D180 with a significant difference (p<0.05) seen only in IL 17-A and IL 6. The prevalence of hepatotoxicity increased with treatment duration and was associated with modulations in the human Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile. IL-6 and IL-17A seem to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of hepatotoxicity. As such they might be used either alone or with other biomarkers to assess HAART induced hepatotoxicity in our context.