Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection and associated risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients attending Thika level 5 hospital, Kenya.
Mangare, Nchagwa Edward
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients, it causes end organ diseases leading to increased morbidity and mortality in the population due to down-regulation of the immune system of the affected individuals. The prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection is high in the general population. Its prevalence in Kenya has been found to be above 93% (CMV-IgG) in HIV infected children. Despite, a high Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence found in children few studies have documented CMV among adults. This study was done to determine the seroprevalence of CMV infection and its associated risk factors among HIV patients attending Thika level 5 Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study also evaluated the effect CMV infection on the immunity of HIV infected patients. A cross-sectional study involving 163 HIV positive participants from different age groups were enrolled. Blood samples were collected; ELISA was used to confirm the HIV status of the participants. The CD4+ cell counts were determined immediately after blood collection using BD FACSCount and CMV IgG and IgM specific antibodies were analyzed by ELISA. Demographic and behavioural risk factors were collected by the use of a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Chi-square test was used to assess the statistical significance of different demographic and behavioural risk factors to CMV serostatus. The seroprevalence was found to be 89% (CMV IgG) while the incidence was 10.4% (CMV IgM). The study found that CMV infection leads to more suppression of the immunity among the HIV infected patients. The study also found out that education, economic status, other sexual transmitted infections, sharing drinks, immune status and blood transfusion were associated with CMV infection (p<0.05). Adoption of CMV screening services and education on CMV risk factors are recommended as CMV infection preventive strategies.