Instructional technology in the facilitation of learning by visually impaired learners in upper primary classes in Kenya
Mugo, Bernard Chomba
MetadataShow full item record
The overall goals of this study were to establish which instructional media are most suitable for teaching visually impaired learners and to establish which methods are most suitable for the use of these instructional media in the facilitation of learning by the visually impaired learners. The major question that the research endeavored to answer was whether learners taught with non-visual media adequately compensate for the lack of visual media. The data for this study was collected using questionnaires, interviews, checklists, classroom observation guide and the focus group discussion (FGD). The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages and presented in form of tables. The study findings revealed that the use of non-visual media to teach visually challenged pupils by the teachers actually did not adequately compensate for the lack of visual media and its modalities. Although some teachers appropriately used the instructional media that were at their disposal and instructional methods to teach the visually challenged, there was lack of signs and symbols and even illustrations that could give equivalent understanding of important concepts and experiences to pupils, especially those who were totally without sight. Moreover, majority of the teachers were not aware of the plight of the visually challenged pupils as brought about by the limitations of the use of audio and tactile sensory channels in absence of visual channel and its modalities. On the basis of these findings, the study recommended that the Ministry of Education, parents, and sponsors should give priority towards the provision of adequate instructional media for teaching the visually challenged persons. It was also recommended that all the students undertaking education in colleges and in universities be trained in teaching the students who have special needs in education. This could be well organized by the Departments of Educational Communication and Technology in conjunction with special education departments in universities with the support from the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education in conjunction with higher institutions offering special education should occasionally in-service teachers of visually challenged to facilitate the teacher's skills of utilizing the media and methods for better learning by the visually challenged learners. The researcher suggests that studies should be carried out to establish ways of providing and utilizing the visual stimulus especially those available in print textbooks by providing equivalent tactile versions of the pictorial form in the Braille version of the pupils texts. Also a study should be carried out to establish the functions of instructional media such as how tactile media compare with audio and visual media on permanency, speed of transmission, linearity, presentation of a comprehensive overview and also in the creation of awareness.