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dc.contributor.authorOmonge, Paul Omondi
dc.date.accessioned2017-09-05T09:13:35Z
dc.date.available2017-09-05T09:13:35Z
dc.date.issued2016-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/17777
dc.descriptionA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Environmental Science in the School of Environmental Studies of Kenyatta Universityen_US
dc.description.abstractAllocation of available water resources to various competing uses is increasingly necessary in basins that experience water scarcity. In the Nyangores sub-catchment, there are currently a number of water abstractors, however, no water allocation plan exists for either the River Nyangores or the entire sub-catchment hence creating room for conflict between upstream and downstream users during periods of water stress. The subcatchment is significant in that it forms a part of the Mara River basin that supports the Mara and Serengeti ecosystems, a world heritage site. The main objective of this study was to simulate the water resource use and allocation in the sub-catchment for the purposes of planning and management. The study was guided by three specific objectives (i) To identify existing major water sources of the sub-catchment ii) To determine the current demand, supply and quality of water resources in the sub-catchment (iii) Simulate the impact of planning and management options on the future of water use and allocation in the sub-catchment. Water use data for the year 2014 and past hydro-meteorological data for the period 1970 - 2014 was collected from field exercises, the Water Resource Management Authority and the Meteorological department in Nairobi. Datasets on water sources and sinks and their attributes were collected using Geographical Positioning System and processed in ArcGIS 10.1 software to create a spatial database. Descriptive statistics and STATA 11 software were used to analyze water quantity and quality data. Water Evaluation and Planning tool was then applied to investigate the hydrology of the Nyangores River to scenarios of increased water demand. Over 90% of the upstream springs and wells were found to be active sources supporting the rural communities. In the downstream arid and semi-arid area, 25% of the springs are completely dry and another 25% are seasonal in nature thereby increasing the dependency on the river Nyangores as a major water source. In overall, the spring flow rates during the measurement campaign lay between 0.1 - 0.25 liters/second. The results also indicate that the Total Dissolved Solids tend to increase in downstream sources, ranging from 40 to 1150 mg/L indicating deteriorating water quality generally. This can be attributed to accumulation of pollutants and increase in sediment load, as the river winds its way downstream. A positive correlation of{r = 0.47) was found between discharge rate and a change in altitude. The current annual water, demand within the sub-catchment is 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are inefficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the Reference Scenario, by the year 2030, the WEAP Model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 Million m3 mostly in the dry season. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is experienced at the Irrigation demand site; also significant in the dry seasons of December through February. While monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth was projected to be 1.06 million m3 , by year 2030. However, with Improved Water Conservation Scenario, total water demand is projected to reduce by 24.2% in the same period. The results indicate a definite inadequate water supply for the sub-catchment within the next 15 years. Catchment water conservation measures, informed water works and collective water planning and management must therefore be undertaken by the three county governments that share the sub-catchment to ensure sustainable water supply and demand allocation devoid of conflict among users.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.titleSimulation of Water Resource Use and Allocation in Nyangores Sub-Catchment of the Upper Mara Basin, Bomet Countyen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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