Assessment of crowd management strategies used for football events in government-owned sports Stadia in Nairobi County, Kenya
Mandu, Agnes Wanjiku
MetadataShow full item record
Spectator violence in stadiums is part of a larger set of problems related to misbehaviour in football and it has resulted into deaths and injuries during football events, especially where rival football clubs are playing. This is especially exacerbated where fans seating arrangement is not properly demarcated. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess crowd management strategies applied by the management of government-owned sports stadia in Nairobi County, Kenya. The management strategies the study sought to assess were mainly on security arrangements in terms of the pre-event, event and post-event preparations and arrangements. The target population for the study comprised of 64 staff working at Moi International Sports Centre (MISC) and Nyayo National Stadium (NNS), 24 Football Kenya Federation (FKF) officials at National and Nairobi County levels, 304 police officers stationed at Kasarani Police division, Ngomongo Police Post, Langata Police division and Nyayo National Stadium Police Post. Sample size for football fans was calculated at 384 using Fishers’ formula since the total population for both MISC (60,000) and NNS (30,000) was estimated at 90,000. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the respondents, to ensure a fair representation of all the target groups. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data collected was summarized into descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Data presentation was carried out using graphs, barcharts, tables and pie-charts. The null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at p < 0.05 level of association/agreement using SPSS version 20. Findings revealed there was a level of agreement between the security/safety service personnel and football fans on the adequacy of stadia safety features where a higher proportion of both were of the opinion that the safety features were partially adequate. On pre-event strategies the findings revealed that the strategies used were viewed by a high proportion of the respondents as partially effective, with a departure on facility maintenance which was viewed as effective and advertising of penalties for misbehaviour while in the stadium which was indicated as ineffective. The stadia security/safety service personnel and the football fans generally agreed that the strategies used to manage crowds during football matches in the two sports stadia were partially effective. For the post-event strategies security/safety personnel and football fans were of the opinion that the strategies used to control crowds after a football match were generally partially effective. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the management of the two sports stadia should improve on all the strategies used to manage crowds during football matches. Further studies on crowd management strategies for football events need to be carried out in other government- owned and non-government owned sports stadia in Kenya.