Effects of the Jigsaw Technique on the Performance of Students with Visual Impairment in Geography at Thika high School for the Blind. Kenya
Muinde, Hellen Muthio
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The purpose of the research was to analyze effects of the Jigsaw Technique, on performance in geography form two students with visual impairments. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of the Jigsaw Technique on performance in geography of students with visual impairments, impact of the category of visual impairment, that is, low vision and the blind, on performance in geography; effect of gender disparities on performance in geography and the difference in performance of students using Braille and those using print as a medium of writing when jigsaw technique was used. Aspects of the motivational, social, cognitive and developmental theories were integrated to guide this study. The target population comprised of 40 students in the form two classes in, Thika High School for the Blind. The research sample included 20 students for the experimental group and 20 for the control group, drawn purposively from the form 2 classes. Non-Standardized Structured (teacher made) tests were developed by the researcher to measure the students' Pre and Post instruction achievements in geography. The scores in the pre and post-tests obtained in the two experimental groups were recorded, graded and ranked. Data was analyzed and tabulated using descriptive statistics. To test for differences in performance between those taught through the two different instructional methods, a t-test was used. To test for differences in performance between categories of gender, vision and medium of writing of those taught through the Jigsaw technique a Kruskal-Wallis Anova was used. Both tests were performed at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that students taught through jigsaw technique of Cooperative learning performed better than those taught through the traditional lecture method. In addition, the results indicated that regardless of gender and type of instructional medium, that is, braille or print, the jigsaw technique of cooperative method was still effective as there were no significant differences established. Recommendations were made with regard to policy makers, educational planners, curriculum developers, teachers in general and teachers in schools for the visually impaired learners to emphasize and adopt the use of Jigsaw Technique to motivate and improve acquisition of knowledge and skills in learners with visual impairments, refresher and in-service courses for learning friendly teachers, child friendly learning environments, curriculum and assessment methods that take into consideration the individual needs of learners. Further research was also recommended with respect to this method of instruction to be used with other students in schools for the visually impaired and integrated programs in order to increase the validity and reliability of the technique by providing regional comparison.