Characterization of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide (Azo) Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Thermal Evaporation for Solar Cell Applications
Mugwang’a, F. K.
Karimi, P. K.
Njoroge, W. K.
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Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited using reactive thermal evaporation technique using an Edward Auto 306 Magnetron Sputtering System. Transmittance and reflectance data in the range 300 nm-2500 nm were obtained using UV-VIS NIR Spectrophotometer Solid State 3700 DUV for all the thin films samples that were prepared. Transmittance values of above 70% were observed. The optical measurements were simulated using SCOUT 98 software to determine optical constants and optical bad gap of the thin film. The optical properties in these films were varied by varying Aluminums doping percentages. It was observed that the transmission over the visible range decreased as the concentration of Aluminum increased. This is due to free carriers coupling to the electric field hence increasing the reflection. Optical band gap for various samples of Aluminum doped thin films show a direct allowed transition and a shift in the optical absorption edge as the Aluminums concentration increased. These results show values of band gap ranging between 3.2 eV and 3.5 eV. Between 0% - 3% the optical band gap reduces. This is followed with widening of the band gap for doping between 4%- 6%. Urbach energy gradually increased with increasing band gap. The band gap reduced due to formation of localized states near the conduction band corresponding to increase in Urbach energy