Effects of child labour on participation in public primary education in Kayole Division, Nairobi County, Kenya
Despite the gains achieved through free primary education, there are still factors that hamper participation in education by children in Kenyan primary schools. For children from poor backgrounds, one such issue is child labour. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of child labour on participation of children in public primary education in Kayole Division Nairobi County. It was informed by the following objectives: to determine the nature of child labour in Nairobi County, to find out the reasons why child labour persists in Nairobi County, to examine the effects of child labour on participation in primary education in Nairobi County and recommendations. Thorough literature review was done of both theoretical and empirical literature. Two theories were identified based on their explanatory power of child labour and participation of children in school; the human capital theory and Abraham Maslow‟s Needs Hierarchy theory. Empirical literature showed the extent of child labour and evidence of how child labour affects participation in education. This study employed a descriptive survey design. The study adopted Kayole division in Embakasi district as the locale. The research population consisted of pupils from class 5 and 6 and class teachers of the two classes in the 7 public primary schools in Kayole. The total target pupil population was 926, out of which a sample population of 279 pupils was drawn. In addition 14 teachers out of a total population of 138 teachers and 7 community leaders constituted the total sample population. Purposive sampling technique was used to sample the respondents. Pilot study was carried out in pupils in class 7 in one of the schools and inconsistencies reviewed to ensure validity. Reliability was tested through split half method, the correlation coefficient for this study was 0.78. Data was collected through structured questionnaires administered by the researcher and interview schedule for local leaders. Data from the field was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data was input into statistical software (SPSS). The qualitative data was summarized and analyzed thematically. Data was presented through narratives, tabulation, charts and graphs. This study concluded that domestic child labour is more pronounced than waged labour; the effects of the two notwithstanding. This means that domestic chores affect more children than waged labour. This research recommended more focus on domestic labour in the Fight against child labour and its effects on child participation in education. While waged child labour may have decreased, the challenge remains in the homes where children have to handle many chores that compromise their education. It further recommended measures aimed at lowering poverty effects for children who come from poor families. Finally, the study recommended that a consultative approach that ensures all stakeholders are involved in promoting children‟s access and participation in education is adopted.