A Review of the Biochemical, Hematological and Histological Modulations in Acetaminophen Induced Hepatoxicity and the Potential of Urtica Dioica in the Regeneration of the Liver
Juma, K. K.
Mburu, D. N.
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Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic/analgesic drug available as an over the counter prescription. It is an acetilide and phenacetic derivatives. Extensive studies on the safety of acetaminophen have been performed and evidence of hepatoxicity remains to be established. It has also been used in the management of fever and pain. In addition, it has been compounded with many other drugs raising concerns over the safety and efficacy of the use of acetaminophen. The toxicity effect of acetaminophen have also been sustained in all routes of administration; intravenous, intramuscular, rectal and oral with similar biochemical, hematological and histological profiles. The liver is the main organ responsible for metabolic biotransformation of acetaminophen. The hematological, biochemical and pathological effect of the acetaminophen hepatotoxicity will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action in acetaminophen toxicity. This study therefore reviews previous studies assessing hepatoxicity by examining the biochemical, hematological and histological findings as determined after acetaminophen administration. The potential for Urtica dioica in protecting the liver and its ability in regenerating the hematological, liver enzymes and tissues has been demonstrated in many other studies as shown in this study. Hence, there is great potential for Urtica dioica in the protection of the liver against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity. Statistical analysis is also very important for the interpretation of toxicity data. This study has also reviewed the relevant statistical methods as they have been used in various toxicological studies