Factors contributing towards job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among warders at Kisii prison
The aim of this study was to establish the factors contributing towards job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among prison warders. In respect to this, some of the key parameters that were looked at included; housing facilities, salary and promotional opportunities, freedom of expression and decision-making, relationship with the seniors, aspects of career development among others as influencing job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Thereafter, possible solutions towards the warders' job dissatisfaction were documented. The study had both policy and academic significance. It is expected to assist policy makers formulate laws which will improve the working conditions and welfare of the warders. Scholars may also use these findings to identify new areas of research and add to the pool of knowledge. The target population comprised of both male and female junior warders and a cross sectional survey method of data collection was used. For accurate representation of the entire population of 400 warders, the simple random sampling technique was used to get a sample of 80 respondents. A questionnaire was the key instrument used for data collection in this study and it was administered personally. The data generated from the questionnaire was coded, explained and interpreted in relation to the research objectives. Data analysis was done by use of descriptive statistics including frequency distributions, percentages and tables. This study had various findings. First, that inadequate remuneration and reward systems were the main causes for job dissatisfaction. Second, unprioritized prison reforms caused anxiety, disinterest in work and hopelessness among the warders. Third, lack of autonomy and empowerment on the job led to inefficient delivery of services due to low morale. Finally, lack of career development opportunities caused dissatisfaction since there were no clear career paths for progress for the warders. Based on the findings of the study it was evident that the prison warders were a highly dissatisfied lot. This was attributed to the fact that 76.7% of the warders interviewed expressed dissatisfaction towards their job as opposed to 27.7% who expressed satisfaction. Inadequate remuneration and reward systems, lack of career development opportunities and empowerment, coupled with unprioritized prison reforms resulted into a dissatisfied workforce and the outcome was inefficient delivery of services. From the findings of the study it was concluded that the prison warders would be satisfied with their jobs if their remuneration and reward systems were reviewed and harmonized with those of their colleagues in other forces. Also, if they were provided for with diverse career development opportunities and clear avenues for progress in their job. Additionally, the warders would derive a lot of satisfaction from their jobs if they were empowered and given greater autonomy so as to efficiently discharge their duties. To effectively address the issues concerned with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among prison warders in Kenya, intervention by the concerned ministry to develop suitable job motivational approaches was highly recommended. This is because motivation comes in different forms and it is a key element at the workplace. The major challenge therefore rests on the ministry concerned to pay attention to the plight of the prison warders and improve their social welfare and working conditions.