School-Based Factors Influence Implimentation of Enviromental Education in Secondary School Education In Molo District Nakuru Country Kenya
Mwangi, Michael Gachie
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environmental degradation there has been very little investigation into the effectiveness of the various programs put in place for teaching Environmental Education in secondary schools' curriculum. The purpose of this study therefore, was an attempt to investigate school-based factors that influence implementation of environmental education in Secondary schools in Molo District, Nakuru County. The study sought to identify the status of the physical resources used in teaching environmental education, to find out the approaches used in teaching environmental education, to determine teachers' levels of training and preparedness in handling the curriculum, establish levels of interaction between students and teachers for pro - environmental behavior change and difficult areas of communication in environmental education. In this study the independent variables were constructs derived from Expectancy Value Theory which provided a platform in assessing the motivation for the implementation of Environmental Education in secondary schools. That is, motivation underlying the teachers and the students' behaviors in the implementation of Environmental Education. The study employed descriptive design since the purpose was to identify the state of affairs in regard to the implementation of Environmental Education. The study involved collecting statistical information from the respondents on their attitudes, opinions and habits in relation to the implementation of Environmental Education without manipulating any variable. The population of the study consisted of 7776 students, 219 teachers and 29 principals. The study employed a purposive sampling technique to select 15 principals and 45 Environmental Education teachers while a simple random sampling was used to select 600 students. A total of 474 students, 30 teachers and 7 head teachers participated in the study. This gave a sample size of 511respondents out of 660 sample size giving a return rate of 77%. Data collection was strictly confidential and done through questionnaires for students and teachers, and interviews schedules with head teachers. 'The instruments were piloted in 3 schools that were not involved in the main study and gave reliability coefficients of 0.8027 and 0.7993 for teachers and students questionnaires respectively. Quantitative data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 and presented in the form of graphs and frequency distribution tables, while qualitative data was analyzed thematically with data from interview schedules reported in quotes and narratives. The main findings of the study included that Environmental Education is taught as part of other subjects such as Geography, Agriculture and Biology. The main resources used in teaching Environmental Education are text books and charts with little use of information technology. Teachers handling Environmental Education rarely receive special training in Environmental Education though they are trained in subjects that offer Environmental Education. Further, the approaches used by teachers to handle Environmental Education are mainly teacher - centered. Also the desire to cover the syllabus and performance in the exams are the main motivation in teaching Environmental Education than environmental concern. Apart from class work, teachers use co-curricular activities such as tree planting and wildlife clubs to deliver Environmental Education content. Challenges that hinder delivery of Environmental Education include lack of relevant resources such as computer and internet. Further, there is no clear policy that guides delivery of Environmental Education. in schools. It is recommended that the schools invest in information technology in the teaching of the curriculum and organize in - service training for teachers handling Environmental Education.