|dc.description.abstract||I-Iuman Immunodeficiency Virus-I (HIV -1) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) co-infection is 4
common public and clinical health burden in Kenya. This is because these blood borne
pathogens share modes of transmission. Drug users, especially injecting drug users (IDUs), are
at a higher risk of acquiring and transmitting these viruses because they often share unsterilized
I syringes and engage in risky sexual behaviors. Mombasa County serves as the entry and transit
point for drugs and consequently have the highest number of IDUs. Co-infection with HlV-1
and I-IBV results in severe disease outcomes and rapid progress to AIDS. Following HBV
infection, HlV-1 infected patients are six times more at risk of developing chronic hepatitis B
than HfV-1 negative individuals. HIV -1 also enhances the development of HBV related liver
diseases. Interleukin 10 is an immunoregulator cytokine that function to control the balance
between immunopathology and protective responses in infection. Interleukin 10 is usually
associated with antiviral immune response suppression. Both HIV -1 and HBV infections up
regulate It 10 expression which in turn controls various aspects of the infection processes.
Despite the importance of lL-l 0 in disease progr~ss, little is known about the role it plays in
IIIV-1 and IIBV co-infection pathology mechanisms. Therefore, a cross sectional study will be
conducted at Bomu Medical Centre, Mombasa County to determine the levels of circulating IL-
10 and their effect on immunological correlates in HIV -1 and HBV co- and mono-infected adults
in Mombasa County. lL-10 levels will be measured using lL-l 0 enzyme linked immunosorbent
_, assay. The samples will be tested for HIV -1 using Abbott Determine® HlV -1/2 rapid test and
confirmed using Uni-Gold® test. HBsAg presence will be determined using one-step HBV-5
panel rapid diagnostic kit. The viral loads will be determined using polymerase chain reaction.
CD4 T cells will be enumerated using FACSCalibur machine. Basal metabolic index will be
calculated using the height and weight measurements of the study subjects. The data collected
will be analyzed using SPSS (version 22) and GraphPad Prism (version 6.0) statistical programs.
Across groups comparison will be done using Kruskal Wallis whereas paired groups comparison
will be done using Manu-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation test will be used to
determine the relationship between IL-I0 and CD4 T cells, viral load and basal metabolic index.
A probability of :S0.05 will be considered statistically significant. The results obtained will help
in improving the understanding of HIV and HBV co-infection pathology and development of
new therapies that can be effective against the coinfection and vaccines||en_US