Removal of chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds from aqueous media using zero valent bimetals
Kiriro, Grace Nduta
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Chlorine in drinking water, surface or underground water is a concern of this generation. This is because chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic compounds to form polychlorinated complexes that are carcinogenic. However, chlorine is dissolved in water for the sake of disinfecting with a view to killing pathogens in water to make it safe for human consumption. After that initial addition, some chlorine is left in the water and continues with the chlorination process of the organic matter which includes the dead pathogens. According to Kenya beaural of standards the allowed maximum limits for chlorine concentration in water is 1.6ppm (KS part 1), but even this concentration posses potential harmful effects with time. Available methods for removal of chlorine and chlorinated compounds include adsorption, precipitation, electrolysis and ozonation. These methods are expensive and some result in generation of toxic compounds as well as generation of different form of pollutants. This study intends to apply the use of zero valent bimetals for the removal of chlorine and chlorinated compounds in water which does not generate toxic by-products. The zero valent bimetallic material will be anchored on an organic non bio- degradable polystyrene material sourced from the waste. This is viewed as a green method of cleaning the environment. The zero valent bimetal substrate anchored material will be prepared through nitration, amination, complexation and reduction process using suitable ligands. The resulting solid material will be charactised using FTIR and thermogravimetric methods and then packed in a column and applied for the removal process. Removal optimization parameters such pH, removal coefficient and flow rate will be optimized using synthetic waters. After the optimization the prepared material will be applied on real sourced from Nairobi water and Sewerage Company (tap water), Kiamumbi water treatment plant and ground water. Quantification of chlorine will be done using potentiometric methods using both pH meter and ion selective electrode (ISE). The data will be analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The results of this study will be communicated with a view to inform policy makers and sensitize the public on the role of chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds and its subsequent removal.