Teachers' application of individualized educational programme on low academic performing learners aged 6 to 8 years in Loitokitok district, Kajiado
Njaru, Harrison Mbogo
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An Individualized Educational Programme (lEP) approach seeks to discourage teaching that is based on criteria of averages simply because some learners will inevitably fall behind while others will be ahead in class work. Curriculum managers must always endeavor to take into consideration the different abilities and needs of the learners. Therefore curriculum must be capable of being adapted, differentiated, accommodated and modified to meet the diverse needs of all learners. Accessible and flexible curriculum is key to creating schools that meet the needs of all learners. This study intends to determine the performance of learners, by exploring the teachers' knowledge and use of IEP, other new strategies teachers use to mitigate the low performance, the effect ofIEP on learners' academic achievement and the contribution of IEP on teacher-parent relationship on academic achievement. The study problem hinges on IEP that can differentiate, adapt, accommodate, and modify the curriculum to suit the diverse abilities and potential of all learners. The purpose of the study is to establish the teacher's application of IEP on academic achievement of low academic performing early childhood learners in lower primary schools emphasizing on learners' educational needs. The study will provide answers to the problems of low academic performing learners, additional evidence on the positive impact of using IEP to reveal factors that may contribute to an effective use of IEP. Teachers should be concerned because research study shows that approximately 10% of high IQ learners read two or three more years below grade level and 2% - 10% of all learners in gifted programmes have learning difficulties. Guided by the Maslow's "theory of motivation, the study will endeavor to establish how IEP can motivate the learners to enable them to aspire for higher academic achievement. The study will employ exploratory research survey design where pretest and posttest done by sampled subjects before IEP is introduced and after three months academic duration to establish the level of academic achievement. The study will be done in Loitokitok District of Kajiado County where the learning level in lower primary schools are low with one out of five class three learners being unable to do class two work. The pilot study will be conducted in one primary school where ten learners will be sampled purposively. Pilot study will ensure validity and reliability of the study instruments. The sample size will be eleven primary schools, three hundred learners, forty four teachers and three hundred parents all purposively sampled. Data will be collected through exploring learner's portfolios, continuous assessment tests and examinations at the end of academic period and questionnaires. The quantitative data from the tests and examinations which will involve scoring the learners' ability will be analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely; frequency distribution, means and percentages while qualitative data collected from the learner's demography and questionnaires will be presented using pie charts, bar graphs and frequency distribution tables. It is expected that low learners taught using IEP will show greater high academic achievement compared to those taught using conventional normal mode of teaching.