Impact of neonicotinoids on honey bees (apis mellifera scutellata) and their ecological services in selected apiaries in Kiambu county, Kenya
Mulati, Protus Wanjala
MetadataShow full item record
One third of global agricultural production relies on pollination especially that of honey bees (Apis melifera sculetta). Despite their importance honey bees die at a high rate, threatening global food security. In Kenya due to environmental pollution and pesticide applications, there has been an unprecedented decline in the population of honey bees. The intentional and unintentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides has resulted in residues in hive products especially bees wax. Hive products such as honey are widely consumed as food and used for medicinal purposes and their contamination may cause serious health hazards. Bee keepers themselves sometimes cause poisoning of honey bees by using inappropriate products to protect the honey bees. Pollination management is not included in their crop management practices. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and their ecological services in selected apiaries in Kiambu County. The specific objectives are to; investigate the different types of pesticide attributed to beekeeping and agricultural practices in areas of study, determine the levels of pesticides in bee products in areas of study, to assess the toxicity levels of pesticide residues in areas of study and suggest effective and efficient conservation measures that can be put in place to protect the honey bees poisoning with pesticides. This study will mainly focus on bee samples, honey, beeswax, and pollen since they are depository sites for pesticides. Samples of bees, honey, wax and pollen will be collected from selected apiaries located in relatively pesticide free and intensive pesticide use areas and analyzed for pesticide residues they contain. Half of the samples, collected will be analyzed by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and the other half for Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry: The expectations of the study are; establishment of different types of pesticides! and amounts utilized and toxicity levels of pesticides residues and determination of appropriate, effective and efficient conservation measures that can prevent bee poisoning and the levei of pesticide residues in bee' products. The research findings will be used to help develop policies to minimize the honey bees decline trend and increase their use for pollination provision.