An analysis of causes of teachers turnover in public secondary schools. A case of Makuyu division Murang' a county in Kenya
Gakuru, Rosemary Nduta
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The aim of this study was to establish causes of teacher turnover that is important for policy formulations that target teacher retention. This was brought about by lack of devotion of teachers at their place of work. This is evident in their instability in the teaching profession and low morale in performing their task as well as poor performance. Poor remuneration has always been quoted as the main cause of low morale, but literature shows that there are other factors that lowers teacher morale and increase their turnover. Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. This analysis therefore examined the possibility that there are other causes related to teacher demographics, career development, working conditions and school demographics that are driving teacher turnover and in turn school staffing problems. The causes of teacher turnover in Makuyu Division were therefore examined in this study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 public secondary schools out of 24 public secondary schools in the division. 40 teachers (1 male and I female) out of 240 teachers were randomly selected to participate in the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the sample population which constituted 16% of the total population. The study employed a descriptive survey design and was carried out in public secondary schools in Makuyu division. This is because secondary school teachers are leaving teaching at a higher rate than primary school teachers in the division at a rate of 25-30% (T.S.C 2013). A questionnaire was administered to the sample of teachers to find out causes that would make them exit the teaching profession. The questionnaire comprised of structured and a few unstructured questions. It employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyse data. Validity of the data collection instrument was judged by experts'. Reliability of data collection instruments was ascertained through piloting the instrument. Data was presented in graphs, charts and tables. The study was intended to provide the T.S.C, the employer of teachers in public secondary schools in Kenya and school management B.O.G with information so they can put in place necessary measures that can manage the turnover. It also provided the policy makers with information so as to formulate laws which will improve the working conditions and welfare of teacher's in order to reduce their turnover. Several findings were made in regard to the study but notable of these were that poor working conditions, low pay, and poor administration significantly caused teacher turnover in Makuyu division. It was also noted that middle aged teachers had a higher turnover than very old and very young teachers. Schools where teachers are involved in decision making registered a low turnover. The study recommended that all stake holders in education should put in place measures that will reduce teacher turnover. These measures include better pay,proper administration,student discipline, low teacher- student ratio and adequate facilities. Teacher promotion should be on merit and they should be allowed to further their education without restrictions.