Use of Celisa in Verification of Drug Levels in the Serum following Treatment by Various Personnel in Lamu District
Animal trypanosomosis is a serious constraint to animal production in many parts of Africa. Economic losses in Kenya are estimated at Kshs.700million annually from livestock deaths. The cost of importation of trypanocidal drugs and pesticides amounts to KShsJOO million and 60 million respectively. Control of this disease is mainly by use of chemoprophylactic and chemotherapeutic drugs including diminazene aceturate, isometamidium and homidium bromide. Farmers have been experiencing treatment failure mainly attributable to improper use of trypanocidal drugs, development of resistance and poor quality of drugs. This study was carried out to determine the role of trypanocidal drug use in treatment failure in cattle in five sites within Lamu District. Cattle were randomly selected and marked for identification from five selected sites of Lamu. Blood was collected from the ear vein using heparinised capillary tubes for parasitological examination of trypanosomes and (pC V) determination. The presence of trypanosomes was determined using the micro-haematocrit centrifugation and buffy coat/dark ground techniques. Blood collected from the jugular vein was used to determine the serum drug level by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The type of trypanocidal drug used, personnel administering the drug, the time when the cattle were treated last were recorded from the farmers. The cELISA for determination of drug levels in the serum after extraction in O.lM borax at pH 9.7 was carried out for the three drugs (diminazene, homidium and isometamedium). The analysis of serum prepared from blood samples collected from the five sites in Lamu district showed an overall treatment failure of 12.9%. This study has demonstrated that drug levels can be used to evaluate treatment failure and drug use which can contribute to efficacy of trypanocidal drug. The study has also established that the three types of trypanocidal drugs are being used in the area, both the veterinary personnel and farmers administer the drug and the drugs were administered intra-muscularly. There was a small percentage (20%) of treatment due to drug resistance, there were also few cases of mis-diagnosis. Treatment failure was largely due to under-dosing. Overall, livestock keepers under dosed 135 animals as compared to 52 by Veterinary personne1. There was a big percentage (81.2%) of drug levels below therapeutic level. The study has demonstrated further that cELISA method can be used in the verification of trypanocidal drug use as a cause of treatment failure.