Constraints Facing the Implementation of Inclusive Education: A Case of selected Secondary Schools in Kericho County
Chepkwony, Alfred K. A.
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The National Special Needs Education Policy Framework in Kenya stipulates that there shall be elimination of disparities and enhancement of equity and equality for all learners, especially inclusion of learners with special needs in the education system. The problem is that there still exist inequalities and disparities in accessing quality education among learners with special needs. The study was guided by the following objectives: To describe personnel-related constraints facing implementation of inclusive education, identify constraints facing availability of resources in inclusive settings, find out curriculum-related constraints in regard to learners with SNE and find out constraints related to the physical environment. Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory informed this study. A case study design of two selected inclusive secondary schools in Kericho County was used. The case study used a purposive sample of two public secondary schools; respondents included the two Principals, teachers, resource teachers, and Educational Assessment Resource Centre officers. Interviews were conducted with administrators, teachers and educational assessment resource team. Two methods of data analysis were used: Domain and thematic analysis. Domain analysis involved analysis of language of participants in the cultural context of their respective inclusive schools. Major findings include: general curriculum teachers have no basic knowledge in handling learners with special needs; the two schools experience shortage of trained SNE teachers because those already trained fear laborious work and are unavailable to provide their services to learners with special needs and teachers have no basic knowledge in handling this category of learners. The study concluded that inclusive education is constraint by shortage of personnel, inadequacy of specialized material resources to be used in the teaching of learners with special needs, and the learning environment is still far from being accessible to students with SNE. The researcher recommends that for the learning environment to be conducive, schools must take initiative to improve on physical facilities to be sensitive to learners with SNE. In addition, policy makers should create awareness and do sensitization to remove socio-cultural attitudes and systems that condemn special needs selectively and create barriers on avenues for accommodation and inclusion.