Genetic Differentiation of Anopheles Gambiae Populations from East and West Africa: Comparison of Microsatellite and Allozyme Loci.
Kamau, L. M.
Hawley, W. A.
Collins, F. H.
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Genetic variation of Anopheles gambiae was analysed to assess interpopulation divergence over a 6000 km distance using short tandem repeat (microsatellite) loci and allozyme loci. Differentiation of populations from Kenya and Senegal measured by allele length variation at five microsatellite loci was compared with estimates calculated from published data on six allozyme loci (Miles, 1978). The average Wright's FST of microsatellite loci (0.016) was lower than that of allozymes (0.036). Slatkin's RST values for microsatellite loci were generally higher than their FST values, but the average RST value was virtually identical (0.036) to the average allozyme FST. These low estimates of differentiation correspond to an effective migration index (Nm) larger than 3, suggesting that gene flow across the continent is only weakly restricted. Polymorphism of microsatellite loci was significantly higher than that of allozymes, probably because the former experience considerably higher mutation rates. That microsatellite loci did not measure greater interpopulation divergence than allozyme loci suggested constraints on microsatellite evolution. Alternatively, extensive mosquito dispersal, aided by human transportation during the last century, better explains the low differentiation and the similarity of estimates derived from both types of genetic markers.