Skills and methodological constraints to effective instructional supervision in public primary schools in Central division, Mumias district, Kenya
Masinga, Violet Betty
MetadataShow full item record
The overall research problem addressed in this study was that despite the Government having injected a lot of funds on supervision of schools, skills and methods employed are far from adequate Little has been done to analyze the impact of skill and methodological constraints to effective instructional supervision. The continued decline in the quality of education especially in public primary schools has brought supervision to sharp focus. It was against this backdrop that the researcher carried out a study on skills and methodological constraints to effective instructional supervision of public primary schools in Central Division of Mumias District and offered recommendations to improve methods of supervision which would subsequently lead to improved education standards. The objectives of the study were to analyze supervision styles preferred, find out the skills or techniques used in supervisory activities, and investigate ways commonly used to supervise curriculum implementation by supervisors. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study was done in Central Division of Mumias District and the target population consisted of 23 headteachers, 23 deputy headteachers and 23 senior teachers plus 2 Quantity Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs) in the Division. The researcher drew a sample from the 23 primary schools through simple random sampling. The researcher wrote the names of' the 23 primary schools on separate pieces of paper equal size, folded and mixed them. The researcher then randomly picked 12 papers all wrote down the names of the schools which were then included in the study. The researcher purposively picked 3 teachers from each school ie .,the head teacher, deputy head teacher and senior teacher plus 2 Quality Assurance out Standards Officer who gave a total sample of 38. The questionnaires and interview schedule formed the basic research instruments. Piloting determined the validity and ref lbility of the instruments Quantitative data analysis method was applied whereby data collected were edited, coded and entered in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Program Version 17.0, from which descriptive statistics,(means, percentages, frequencies, and standard deviations) where possible were used to analyze data. The results of data analysis were then presented in frequency table bar graphs and pie charts. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. This was done by identifying information that was relevant to research questions and objectives, developed a ending system, indicated the major themes, placed the coded material under the major themes, developed a summary report, and identified major themes and the association between them The researcher then used graphics and direct quotations to present the 'findings. Quantitative data were also analyzed by triangulation this was here two or more persons independently analyzed the same data set and compared findings. The final findings showed that there were skills and methodological constraints to instructional supervision. These were lack of employing all supervision styles, inadequate methods were used in curriculum implementation, and there was lack of training. The researcher recommended that supervisors should put more emphasis on all supervision styles, attend regular in-service training so as to keep supervisors abreast with new supervisory techniques and facie Out the outdated techniques and poor human relation skills supervisors should apply all methods used to supervise curriculum implementation and he more involved in the observation so as all really know the situation on the ground. Strengthened good and friendly working relationships should exist between the supervisors and teachers so that instructional supervision is carried out in a friendly environment.