Influence of improved water supply and sanitation on the prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Uasin Gishu district, Kenya
Kimutai, Edwin Chumo
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Diarrhoea, due to contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation is a major cause of poor health and leading cause of deaths especially among the under fives. Diarrhoeal diseases cause an average of 2.5 million deaths each year of which 80% occur among the under fives. One in every ten children die of diarrhoea before their fifth-birthday, while those under the age of three years suffer an average of eight diarrhoeal episode, 10% being persistent. Access to safe water sanitation are important components in the prevention of improved water supply and sanitation of prevalence of diarrhoeal disease in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya. Across sectional comparative study was carried out on 500 respondents distributed proportionally to the experimental area (Soy division and the control are (Moiben division). This study evaluated environmental interventions initiated by the community and other change agents to mitigate the effects of diarrhoea. Review of health records and bacteriological analysis of water was carried out. From the findings most respondents perceived contaminated water, poor methods of faecal disposal and poor food hygiene as the main factors associated with increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases in the study area. A significant association was observed between occurrence of diarrhoea and status of water sources, as well a availability of latrine facilities in the area. (c²=70.979, df=1,p=000). Access of safe water supply in the intervention area was found to be relatively high at (84.4% up from 22.5% before intervention. Analysis of water samples from protected source indicated that water compiled with standards for safe drinking water (t=15.08,p=00,df=9). Access to safe water in the control (Moiben division) was comparatively low at 6.4% similarly, latrine coverage in the intervention area had increased from 57% five years ago to 76.6%, which was also quite significant (z-7.490,p=.000). Access use of latrines relatively lower in the control area, which was 58.4%. There was a statistically significant different in the occurrence of diarrhoea than the intervention area (c²=70.979,df=1,p=0.000). More remarkable was the demonstration of the relationship between diarrhoeal incidences and the status of water sources as well as availability of faecal disposal facilities. The study concludes that the intervention have had an influence on the lowering morbidity due to diarrhoeal in the study area. It provides useful insights on the importance of environmental factors in the control of diarrhoeal diseases. It recommends that local capacity building is intensified and environmental health interventions be extended to cover other areas of the district and similarly affected places else where in Kenya.
- MST-Zoological Sciences