Primary school administrative constraints in the 8-4-4 education system with special reference to the headteachers Kisii district case study
Inyega, Justus O.
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The aim of the study was to find out the administrative constraints that were faced by the primary school haedteachers in implementing the practical oriented curriculum in Kisii district in relation to facilities, instruction, staff personnel, discipline and the headteacher's responsibilities in schools. In the review of literature on educational administration in schools, it was noted that most primary schools in Kenya had inadequate provision of physical facilities, equipment and school supplies due to lack of finances. The inadequate provision of the required physical facilities and equipment in schools had led to many schools performing poorly in practical oriented subjects in national examinations. This meant that most schools were facing constraints in implementing the practical oriented curriculum and hence affecting the instructional processes in schools. In order to find out the level at which educational facilities had been provided in Kisii district, a guided questionnaire was used to collect the information from the school headteachers. For validity and reliability of the research instrument, the research questions were generated from the statement of the problem. The instrument was subjected to expert judgement and was then pilot tested. This helped in identifying the sources and collection of the required data. Stratified random sampling was employed and the researcher conducted the study in person with the assistance of four research assistants. The analysis of the headteachers' responses to the questionnaire established that most of the sampled Kisii district primary schools had inadequate provision of physical facilities, equipment and school supplies. The research further indicated that many primary school headteachers in the sampled schools had administrative constraints in the area of facilities, staff personnel, instruction and discipline, while the headteachers' responsibilities had increased under the broad and practical oriented curriculum in the 8-4-4-education system. In this study the following recommendations have been made: There is need to provide adequate educational resources, both human and material resources, in primary schools; there should be adequate inservicing of headteachers and their staff in areas of the primary school curriculum; Technical subjects should be examined at the end of the eight year course so that their teaching is improved on and taught like the other currently examinable subjects in schools; schools should be adequately staffed with professionally qualified teachers for all subjects in the primary school curriculum; schools which have at least two streams should have two deputy headteachers while those that are near each other can have a common library and workshop a central place; science text books and focus on the science and technologies found within the schools' local settings should be encouraged in primary schools; and there is need for further research to be done to find out whether the administrative constraints experienced by the headteacher are due to their incompetency or/and lack of adequate training in education administration.