Assessment of domestic tourism among the residents of Nairobi, Kenya
Bitok, Jebet Jane
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Tourism is an instrument for promoting the economy and livelihood of the people in developing countries, Kenya included. The loss of revenue from the industry in the 1990's had to be made up by involving locals through domestic tourism who unfortunately are not utilizing the tourism products and services well. There is scanty information on the nature and extent of various socio-economic groups who are known to distinguish their status in education and the kinds of goods and services that they consume including tourism. An understanding of the nature and extent of domestic tourism through assessment among residents of Low, Middle and High income estates in Nairobi will guide policy makers to develop effective and supportive policies for domestic tourism marketing strategies. The study was conducted in Nairobi, the Capital City of Kenya. The targeted population was the Low, Middle and High income socio-economic groups. The groups were selected using systematic random sampling technique from the zoning map by the Nairobi City Council Urban Policy Plan (NCCUP). The sample size was determined using Fischer et al formula. Respondents from the three socio-economic groups using cluster random technique were selected for the study. The sample size which responded well was 180 making a response rate of 75 percent which is representative of the sample size. The study adopted a descriptive survey design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods to gather data. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested during the pilot survey. Data were collected using the questionnaires, and the interview schedule. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive Statistics were used to obtain the mean and mode especially for preference sites. Factors affecting perceptions of domestic tourism were subjected to the Kaiser Criterion principle component (factor analysis) to reduce the number of variables by varimax rotation. Most of the respondents interviewed used most of their leisure time reading (68.9%), followed by 61.7% spending their time indoors and only 22.8% spending their time on domestic tourism. A significant difference was identified between saving for domestic tourism across the economic classes in Nairobi which portrayed significant association with a p-value of 0.015 and the same trend was observed on the amount of money saved. Data were presented in bar charts, histograms and frequency distribution tables. The study of the six residential estates indicates that preferences on tourist attraction sites are controlled by kinds of occupation both economically and socially. Residents have different perceptions on domestic tourism and vest the responsibility for their education and understanding on government and tourist service providers. Respondents are aware they can visit attraction sites and are knowledgeable about the products and services delivered. The preference sites are influenced by demographic factors such as income and level of education. Participation has remained low because costs charged for accommodation and travel was considered expensive by residents.