Sanitation practices among public primary school within Nyeri Municipality, Nyeri District, Kenya
Nyaguthi, Miriam Rukwaro
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A variety of physical, emotional, social and environmental factors influence pupils who spend a large part of their life at school. Sanitation is an intervention to reduce exposure to diseases by providing a clean environment. This includes hygienic management of human excreta, refuse and waste water, the control of disease vectors and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. Diseases related to water and sanitation been reported countrywide. The prevalence of diarrheal diseases and intestinal worms within Nyeri municipality is 3.3% and 7.7% respectfully. There is substantial loss of school time because of water and sanitation diseases among pupils. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried among public primary schools within Nyeri Municipality to determine sanitation facilities and hygienic practices following massive school enrolment due to Free Primary Education offered by the Kenya Government. A total 400 pupils selected randomly using probability proportion to size for schools and classes from the two education zones within the municipality were included in the study. Data was collected using pre-tested open and close-ended questionnaires and observation checklists. Data was processed using SPSS software and analyzed using chi-square to determine associations. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between water frequency and type of the school (df= 2, = 0.0001), between availability of water outside the toilets and type school (df= 2, = 0.0363). The toilet pupil ratio was significantly different for boys and girls and depended on the type and management system of the school (df= 3, = 0.0089). The presence of waste water drainage among schools was influenced by the management system of the school (df= 1, = 0.0065), while dustbin availability depended on the type of the school (df= 2, = 0.0001). There was a significant relationship between sanitation facilities and mean examination score among schools (df= 4, = 0.0001). The results showed a statistically significant relationship between hand washing among pupils after visiting the toilet and presence of water outside the toilet (df= 1, = 0.0001), between feeding places and type of the school (df= 6, = 0.0001), and between the practice of wearing shoes among pupils and type of school (df= 2, = 0.0001). Diarrhea and sanitation related diseases were common among pupils. There was a statistically significant relationship between water availability and incidence of diarrhea (df= 1, = 0.0001), between practice of wearing of shoes and presence of intestinal worms among pupils (df= 1, = 0.0051). Girls' boarding and mixed day/boarding schools had better sanitation facilities and practiced most of the hygienic practices and had better examination mean-score compared with mixed day schools. The study has shown that the schools with adequate sanitation facilities had higher examination mean-scores compared with those without. Sanitation practices among school children greatly influence the learning process. The results of this study suggest that there is need for public schools to adhere to the Public Health Act, Education Act and promote sanitation and hygienic practices. This study have revealed that schools with adequate sanitation facilities have a higher examination mean-score.
- MST-Zoological Sciences