Exploration study of guidance and counselling influence on adolescents' maladaptive behaviours in Maragua District secondary schools
Njoroge, John Mungai
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The main purpose of the research was to survey whether Guidance and Counselling services were being provided adequately to students and the rates of adolescents' maladaptive behaviours. The study also sought to find out; causes of specific maladaptive behaviours under study and the methods of controlling them commonly used, gender variation in maladaptiveness, and the qualifications of the teacher counsellors. The study has reviewed theories related to adolescents and those that explain why adolescents are vulnerable to maladaptiveness. The theories are; Motivation, Observational Modelling, and identify stage theory, Issues related to Guidance and Counselling such as Guidance and Counselling services, Governments' policy on Guidance and Counselling, Counselling of maladapted adolescents, principles of behaviour modifications have been reviewed. Related past research findings on adolescents' maladaptive behaviours have been reviewed. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey. This design involved collection of data to assess and describe the status of students' maladaptive behaviours in relation to provision of Guidance and Counselling services to students. The study purposively involved mixed secondary schools in Maragua district. Questionnaires were used in data collection. 120 students from four schools were randomly selected and they responded to a 21-item students' questionnaire. 12 teachers were purposively selected and they responded to a 13-item teachers' questionnaire. Data obtained was analysed by the researcher using various statistical methods. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the analyzed data. Specific statistics used were percentages, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) and coefficient of determination (r2). ANOVA) was used to test for difference in variables with r tested relationship between variables. (r2) was used to interpret the relationship between variables obtained from r. The level of significance of 0.05 was used to test the tenability of the five hypotheses formulated. The main finding of the study was that there was a negative correlation (r-value = 0.4576 < 0.001) between provision of Guidance and Counselling and Counselling services and adolescents' maladaptive behaviours. Other findings were; boys were more involved in maladaptive behaviours that girls were. Students voluntary seeking of Guidance and Counselling services depended on their attitudes towards Guidance and Counselling services. There was significant difference in maladaptive behaviours among students (F-value = 41.61 > critical F-value = 3.10). Media influence was cited as a cause of most of the maladaptive behaviours, and that most teachers involved in Guidance and Counselling had no formal training in Guidance and Counselling. In relation to the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the provision of quality-effective-student centered Guidance and Counselling services in schools to combat adolescents' maladaptive behaviours, and Guidance and Counselling to be made popular in school by relating its services with popular students' activities.