Development of a guidance programme for students with special educational needs in Kenya: a study of personal orientation
The major purpose of this study was to collect baseline data to be used in developing a comprehensive guidance and counselling programme for students with special educational needs in special education secondary schools and vocational rehabilitation training centres in Kenya. This was a quantitative study which involved collecting baseline data using personal orientation inventory (POI) a standardized instrument which consists of 150 paired opposing statements to measure these "students values" and behaviours which are viewed to be important in self-actualized persons. The population of the study was drawn from four purposively selected provinces viz: Eastern, Nyanza and Nairobi because of their higher percentage of special education institutions. Eight districts and two divisions were randomly selected from the four provinces. A total of 229 first and final year students aged between 13-26 years old were randomly sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The independent sample t-test was used to compare the difference between the POI of two major scale's mean scores against the POI approximate range scores given in POI manual, and also to compare the mean of the students with disabilities against nominated subjects given in the POI manual. The results of the study indicated that students with special needs were non-self-actualizing. These findings suggest that these students are other-directed and time incompetent and live in the past or future with a lot of regrets and sentiments. Based on the self-actualizing theory guiding this study and the findings of this study, indicated that there was need for a guidance and counselling programme to be developed for students with special needs which should be comprehensive and could involve the orientation of these students toward positive concept of personal growth (self-concept, self-esteem, self-acceptance and pursuity of independence). Such a programme should further address the students' educational, social, personal and vocational and rehabilitation needs based on their handicapping conditions as identified by POI. Finally, an outline for the guidance programme for students with special needs was developed focusing on areas of needs was developed focusing on areas of needs identified by POI.