Prevalence and micro-epidemiological factors affecting transmission of intestinal helminthic infections in Kapkangani location, Nandi District, Kenya
Nderitu, Joseph Matemo
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The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection and micro-epidemiological factors affecting their transmission. The study was conducted in three primary schools in Kapkangani Location, Kapsabet Division of Nandi District, Kenya. The stool specimens were collected from children and analysed for helminthiasis by Kato-Katz technique. Surface soil samples from homes of children whose stool specimens were analyzed were collected and analyzed by dispersion and sedimentation techniques. Information on family background of the study subjects was obtained through a standard pretested questionnaire. Location data was obtained by use of GPS receiver. ChiSquare and Student t-test were used for comparing infection by sex and age and to determine the risk factors of helminthiasis. The wealth index was calculated using principal component analysis. GPS and parasitological data were analysed together and presented in form of GIS maps for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 42.7%. Hookworm had the highest prevalence (29.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (28.0%) and Trichuris trichiura (8.4%). Males had higher prevalence of helminthiasis than females (x2 =7.142, df =1, P =0.009).Polyparasitism was a common phenomenon among the study subjects where 41% of the cases had two infections, and 8% with three infections. GIS analysis indicated clustering of infections in parts of the study area and within households. Clustering of infections was up to a maximum of four per household in Ascaris lumbricoides. There was a significant association between the father's level of education and helminthiasis (x2 =9.899, df =3 P =0.019). The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of intestinal .helminthic infections in the study area is quite high. The role of economic status, awareness and practices was not very clear in this study. The results will help in intensifying efforts towards achieving the global control efforts to reach 75% of children infected with intestinal helminthiasis by year 2010. The results of this study will be used in designing of community specific control strategy in Kapkangani Location of Nandi District, Kenya.