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dc.contributor.authorMusau, Francis Mutuku
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-14T11:49:16Z
dc.date.available2018-09-14T11:49:16Z
dc.date.issued2018-06
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/18586
dc.descriptionA thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in environmental studies & community development in the school of environmental studies of Kenyatta University. June, 2018en_US
dc.description.abstractThis thesis presents the writer’s contribution to knowledge on the linkage between protected areas, ecosystem services, livelihoods and community development. The study, which was conducted in Shimba Hills between March and July 2014, explored the problem of poverty in an area with diverse natural resources. The study argued for a community development approach based on building the capital assets of the communities. Shimba Hills national reserve is a protected area with social, economic and environmental values accruing from its ecosystem services. However, the extent to which these ecosystem services benefit local communities has not been well investigated. Moreover, after having been under conservation for over five decades, its management effectiveness is not adequately documented, thus making its contribution to conservation and development uncertain. The specific objectives of the study were (i) to determine the level of access to ecosystem services by local communities; (ii) to evaluate the management effectiveness of the protected area; (iii) to measure the dependence of household livelihoods on ecosystem services and (iv) to compare the level of community development in relation to proximity to the protected area. This research employed quantitative and qualitative methods including household survey, focus group discussions, Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A three-point relative scoring scale of low, moderate and high was used to rate the research variables. It was found that over 95% of the households accessed any one type of ecosystem service from the protected area; ecosystem services contributed to livelihoods, accounting for 7% of household incomes; protected area threat status was low (mean score = 0.71) while the management effectiveness was moderate (mean score = 1.87); livelihoods and access to ecosystems services were linked and destruction of the ecosystem would affect 77.5% of the households negatively; and community development index was moderate (mean score = 1.35) and varied with proximity to the protected area. Hot spots of illegal harvesting of resources, human wildlife conflicts and community development index were observed. It was concluded that the level of access to ecosystem services varied significantly (p<0.05) among communities located near or far from the protected area; Shimba Hills was relatively well managed; livelihoods were linked to and depended on ecosystem services; ecosystem services contributed to household incomes; and communities nearer Shimba Hills protected area were relatively more developed than those further away. The results demonstrated application of a monitoring and evaluation tool in assessing protected area management effectiveness. It also showed the use of geospatial techniques in mapping resource use, capital assets and community development. It recommended (i) further research on the impact of protected areas on poverty reduction and community development; (ii) management actions that ensured greater community involvement and more integrated conservation and development projects adjacent to protected areas and (iii) policy actions to enhance protected area benefits and reduce their costs to local people. This study generated new information and tools useful for enhancing protected area management effectiveness and for use in conservation and development planning. The information generated by this study is therefore, crucial in guiding the design and targeting of sustainable development projectsen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.titleGeospatial dimensions of the linkages between ecosystem services and sustainable community development in Shimba Hills, Kwale County - Kenyaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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