Antipyretic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Dichloromethane-Methanolic Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Ximenia Americana in Rats and Mice Models
Gaichu, Daniel Muthee
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Extremely high body temperatures lead to destruction of body cells while excessive inflammation cause damage to body tissues and organs, therefore, the need to treat fever and inflammation. Conventional treatment is associated with many side effects hence the need for a treatment option that is more tolerable. Herbal medicines such as X. americana are arguably associated with minimal side effects. Ximenia americana is widely used as folk medicine in Africa to treat various disorders such as inflammation, pain, fever, helminthiasis, diarrhoea, wounds and intoxications. There is no published data on antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of dichrolomethane-methanolic extracts of X. americana and it is against this background that the current study was carried out. This study tested for the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of dichrolomethane-methanolic stem and leaf extracts of X. americana in rats and mice respectively. Plant materials were collected from Mbeere in Embu County, Kenya. The active compounds were extracted using methanol and dichloromethane in the ratio of 1:1. Two to three months old Wister rats were used to test for antipyretic activities while five to six weeks old Swiss Albino mice were used to test for anti-inflammatory activities. In each case, animals were divided into six groups of five each; normal control, negative control, reference control and three experimental groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg). Pyrexia was induced experimentally using turpentine while inflammation was induced using carrageenan. The experimental groups were treated with predetermined dose quantities of extracts prepared and data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities in rats and mice were compared with aspirin (100mg/kg) and diclofenac (15mg/kg) as the standard conventional drugs respectively. The leaf extracts reduced the rectal temperature by between 0.45% and 2.11% while the stem bark extracts reduced rectal temperature by between 0.71% and 2.13%. Aspirin reduced the rectal temperature by between 0.74% and 1.67%. In anti-inflammatory studies, the leaf extract reduced inflammation by between 0.91% and 16.90% while the stem bark extracts reduced inflammation by between 5.84% and 29.00%. Diclofenac reduced inflammation by between 1.32% and 29.60%. The qualitative phytochemical screening identified presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenolics and tepenoids. Alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins have been associated with antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. The study established that the DCM-methanolic extract of X. americana is effective in management of fever and inflammation. Therefore, X. americana can be explored as a possible bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulation that is effective in the management of fever and inflammation.