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dc.contributor.authorOthoro, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorLal, Altaf A.
dc.contributor.authorNahlen, Bernard
dc.contributor.authorKoech, Davy
dc.contributor.authorOrago, Alloys S. S.
dc.contributor.authorUdhayakumar, Venkatachalam
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-09T07:10:07Z
dc.date.available2017-10-09T07:10:07Z
dc.date.issued1999
dc.identifier.citationThe Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;179:279–82en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/17822
dc.descriptionResearch paperen_US
dc.description.abstractThe balance between Th1 cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interferon [IFN]-g) and Th2 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-10, -4) may be critical in the development of severe falciparum malaria. Therefore, plasma concentrations of these cytokines were determined in children with various manifestations of malaria. Plasma levels of IFN-g and IL-4 were undetectable in most children. However, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly elevated in children with high-density parasitemia and malaria anemia compared with children in control groups. In children with mild malaria, IL-10, but not TNF-α, was significantly elevated. While the highest concentrations of TNF-α were found in children with malaria anemia, IL-10 levels were highest in children with high-density uncomplicated malaria. The mean ratio of IL-10 to TNF-a was significantly higher in children with mild and high-density parasitemia (4.64, P ! .005) than in children with malaria anemia (1.77). Thus, higher levels of IL-10 over TNF-α may prevent development of malaria anemia by controlling the excessive inflammatory activities of TNF-αen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKEMRI)–CDCen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.titleA Low interleukin-10 tumor necrosis factor-a ratio Is associated with malaria anemia in children residing in a moloendemic malaria region in Western Kenyaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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