Predictors of youth livelihood outcomes in Kamukunji Sub-County, Nairobi County, Kenya
Njuguna, Christine Wambui
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Youth are faced by challenges of unemployment, underemployment and working poverty which influence their livelihood outcomes. These challenges facing youth have drawn global attention. The purpose of the study was to determine the predictors of youth livelihood outcomes in Kamukunji Sub-County, Nairobi County. Specifically, the study sought to establish the relationship between individual attributes of youth and youth livelihood outcomes, to determine the relationship between household characteristics of youth and youth livelihood outcomes, to explore the influence of typology of livelihood strategies on youth livelihood outcomes, to analyze the influence of youth focused interventions on youth livelihood outcomes and to establish predictors of youth livelihood outcomes in Kamukunji Sub-County. Anchored on Department for International Development (DFID) livelihoods framework and the General Systems Theory the study applied cross-sectional survey research design to gather data from 201 youth and 11 state and non-state actors. Data collection tools included structured questionnaire, key informant interview schedule and focus group discussion guide. Analysis was conducted using descriptive frequencies and inferential statistics namely Chi-square, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ordered logistic regression. Findings from inferential statistics established a relationship between individual attributes and youth livelihood outcomes (X2= 44.47; d.f. =14; p<O.OI). Specifically, age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05), household headship (p<O.OI), individual savings (p<0.05), individual assets (p<O.OI) were important predictors of youth livelihood outcomes. A relationship also exists between household characteristics and youth livelihood outcomes (X2= 203.18; d.f. =12; p<O.OI) whereby aggregate household monthly income (p<0.01), paternal education (p<0.05) parental influence (p<0.05), number of dependants (p<0.01) and household assets (p<0.01) were important predictors of youth livelihood outcomes. As a whole, livelihood strategies did not influence youth livelihood outcomes (X2= 12.32; d.f. =12; p>0.05). However, specific livelihood strategies whose parameters attained statistical significance were: wage employment (~=0.74, p<0.05) and arts/talent (~=0.26, p<0.05). Finally, there was a relationship between youth focused livelihood interventions and youth livelihood outcomes (X2= 18.70; d.f. =7; p<0.05) so that membership in youth groups (p<0.01), financial institutions (p<0.01) and state funds (p<0.01) were important positive influences of youth livelihood outcomes. In conclusion, it emerged that individual attributes, household characteristics and youth focused interventions were important predictors of youth livelihood outcomes. It is recommended that state and nonstate actors should conduct needs assessment before formulating intervention programs based on individual attributes and household characteristics of youth. State and non-state actors should implement elaborate and expansive business incubation and mentorship programs for youth. To improve livelihood outcomes for all youth, development agencies should ensure that youth focused interventions target all typologies of livelihood strategies undertaken by the youth.