|dc.description.abstract||There has been in Kenya a continued call to enhance
national spirit, namely, that feeling which override2
all tribal loyalties. This call entails a paradox in
that every Kenyan is a member of a nation and, at the
same time f a member of a tribe. He has two polar
identities and two subsequent feelings, one towards the
nation and the other towards the tribe. This thesis is
meant to offer a solution to this paradox.
I have started by portraying the ethnic feeling.
To this effect, I have identified and examined four
cardinal virtues that characterize this feeling. These
are concern, courage, respect, and gratitude. The four
virtues are identified and examined as practised by
the four ethnic communities: concern as practised by
the Kikuyu; courage, by the Nandi i respect, by the
Samburu and gratitude, by the Giriama.
, The four communities have been chosen due to these
two reasons. First, they portray a wide coverage in
that they are located at different parts of Kenya:
at the central, at the west, at the north, and at the
south. They thus give a more representative and
detailed picture of Kenya. Second, they portray a
cultural variety in that each of them uses a different
language; observes different customs; and exhibits a
different world-view. This variety contributes to a
deeper understanding of the ethnic feeling.
I have then come to portray the national feeling.
Out of the four phenomena of the tribal feeling, I have
come to establish a common element. This element is
that of a will, namely, an orientation to a world that;
is more concerned, more courageous, more respectful,
and more grateful.
After portraying the tW0 feelings, I have come to
establish their relation. I have proved that there
exists a dialectic relation, that is, a dialogue between
them. The will, previously established, forms the
principle of this dialogue. First, the will
distinguishes the two feelings by making them separate
and specific. Second, the will harmonizes the two
feelings by making them united and complementary.
Third, the will pervades the two feelings by making
them alternate with each other.
This metaphysical will as the principle of the dialogue is then utilized for the understanding of
unity as an aim of education in Kenya. Unity as an
aim of education in Kenya is fraught with contradictions
and inconsistencies in that at one time nation is given
as the ultimate principle and at another time tribe is
given as the ultimate principle. It is the contention
of the thesis that this principle has not yet been
clarified, justified, and established. I have taken
it my duty to clarify, justify, and establish it.
I have done this in two areas. The first in that
of unity in its aspect of national unity and the second
is that of unity in its aspect of personal unity.
As regards the first, I have taken one of the
educational policy documents, namely, the Ominde
Report (1964-65). I have identified the principle for
unity in education as given in this document. This
principle is that of 'the psychological basis of
nationhood'. I have gone to clarify, justify, and
establish this basis against the background of the
As regards the second area, I have taken another
educational policy document, namely, the Gacathi Report
(1976). I have identified the principle for the unity
in education as given in this document. This principle
is that of 'return to the tradition'. I have gone to
clarify, justify, and establish this basis against the
background of the metaphysical will.
'The thesis then concludes by .identifying a relation
between the nation and various ethnic communities in
This relation rejects absolutism which extols
national feeling at the expense of the ethnic feeling.
This relation also rejects sectionalism which extols
the ethnic feeling at the expense of the national
feeling. Nationa1 unity, consists in the unity, namely,
harmony' of these two feelings.||en_US