Antipyretic, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of four selected Kenyan medicinal plants in Mice models
Zawadi, Victoria Safari
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Acacia nilotica, Urtica dioica, Aloe volkensii and Cynanchum viminale have been used to manage several diseases including pain, inflammation and fever. However, their efficacy has not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of their aqueous extracts. The plant materials were collected from Loita division, Narok County in Kenya. A total of 240 albino mice with an average weight of 20g were used for this study. Antinociceptive activity was determined by use of formalin−induced writhing test. A writhe was recorded by a stopwatch following the stretching of the abdomen and/or stretching of at least one hind limb. A total of 15 groups with 5 mice per group were considered for determination of antinociceptive activity. Diclofenac was administered as the reference drug. Anti-inflammatory activity was established by a formalin induced inflammation test. Hourly changes in paw sizes and reduction of edema around the paw was determined using a vernier calipers for five hours after extract and drug administration. A total of 15 groups with 5 mice per group were considered for determination of anti-inflammatory activity. Diclofenac was used as the reference drug. Antipyretic activity was carried out using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. Temperatures of each mouse was then determined by thermal probe thermometer rectally at hourly interval for three hours after extract and drug administration. A total of 15 groups with 6 mice per group were considered for determination of antipyretic activity. The positive control group was treated with paracetamol at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The aqueous extracts of Acacia nilotica, Aloe volkensii, Cynanchum viminale and Urtica dioica reduced pain, inflammation and fever mostly at dose 150 mg/kg body weight. Based on these findings it was concluded that the present study has demonstrated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of aqueous extracts of Acacia nilotica, Aloe volkensii, Cynanchum viminale and Urtica dioica in albino mice. It will therefore serve as a good bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulations that are more effective in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever.