Bioefficacy of Organic Extracts of Ocimum basilicum against Sitophilus zeamais
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Ocimum basilicum plant extracts in methanol, hexane and methanol: hexane solvent blend were evaluated for their fumigant toxicities, repellent and adult emergence inhibition activities against Sitophilus zeamais. Twenty grams of maize were used for each treatment and four different extract concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100% were tested for their activities. The highest mortality (100%) was observed after 72 h at 100% O. basilicum blend extract concentration. The methanolic extract recorded mortality rates of 74.36% at highest concentration while 78% mortality was true for hexane extract at 96 hours with 100% extract concentration. The three different solvents extracts of O. basilicum recorded high repellent and new adult emergence inhibition activities comparable to actellic (reference pesticide). In conclusion, blend extract of O. basilicum was the most effective in maize weevil control and therefore can be used in formulating eco-friendly bio-pesticide against S. zeamais.