The role of ethnicity in electoral violence; a case of 2007/08 postelection violence in Nakuru municipality of Nakuru County Kenya
Ingoyi, Evans Amukaka
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Ethnicity in electoral violence has been witnessed in many parts of the world from Europe to Asia and the rest of the African region. Ethnic wars are therefore a social problem that affects most societies of the world. In Kenya ethnic violence has been a recurrent feature in general elections and particularly with the re-introduction of multi party democracy in 1991. The same violence was witnessed in 1997 and 2002. This research examined this violence from the perspective of ethnicity with special reference to Nakuru municipality in Nukuru County. The research also interrogated the factors that led to ethnic violence in Kenya since 1991 and assessed the impacts of ethnicity on ethnic relations in Nakuru municipality. To achieve this, the researcher employed a descriptive survey design. The research used cluster, purposive and simple random sampling method to select 400 respondents. The sample size was attained by selecting 40 respondents from each of the ten major estates (clusters) in Nakuru municipality. This work of research was guided by the Relative Deprivation Theory postulated by Robert Merton. This theoretical framework provides a view of social change and movement according to which people take actions for social change to acquire something they believe they should have access to. This push for social change manifests itself in form of ethnic violence during electoral processes. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. Data collection instruments were piloted to test their reliability. Once data was collected descriptive statistics such as percentages were used to analyze the data. Qualitative data mainly from interviews was subjected to content validity during analysis. Presentation of data is in the form of tables, graphs and pie charts.