Effects of dichloromethane-methanolic leaf extracts of Carissa edulis (Forssk.)Vahl on haematological and serum lipid profiles in normal rat models
Obel, Jorum Humphrey
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Assesment of hematological parameters and serum lipid profiles can be used to explain blood related functions of a plant extract. The blood can act as pathological reflector and also as an indicator of the physiological state of an animal. Hematological and lipid related disorders are increasingly on the rise while conventional management of these disorders are not easily accessible. This has prompted an increased use of medicinal plants which are readily available in the management of blood disorders. Carissa edulis (Forssk.)Vahl (Apocynaceae) like other terrestrial plants, has ethnopharmacological relevance and has been exploited by the local people in search for remedies for various diseases including those of the blood. Although C. edulis is widely used in managing blood related disorders in traditional system of medicine, no scientific research have been undertaken to evaluate its effects on the hematological and serum lipid profiles. This study therefore was designed to investigate the effects of Dichloromethane-Methanolic leaf extract of of C. edulis on hematological parameters and serum lipid profiles. The plant leaves were collected from Siakago-Mbeere North Sub-County, Embu County, Kenya. The samples were prepared and extraction of the active compounds carried out using organic solvents; dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. Experimental rats were divided into four groups each consisting of five normal rats. The groups received oral doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kgbw of the extract while one group was used as control and did not receive any dosage. Blood samples were drawn from the rats at intervals of seven days then the hematological and serum lipid profiles were analysed using an auto-analyser. Screening for plants phytochemicals was conducted using the standard recommended procedures. The results of this study showed that DCM-MeOH leaf extract of of C. edulis induced general increase in the levels of red blood cells, Hemoglobin and related parameter profiles across the 50, 75 and 100 mg/kgbw dose levels (p<0.05). The total and differential white blood cell counts also increased significantly at all the dose levels during the study period (p<0.05). Platetes and the related parameter levels also significantly increased at all dose levels during this study period (p<0.05). The triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, however, decreased significantly at all the dose levels (p>0.05), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly during this study. Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of various phytochemicals which included alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, terpenes and traces of steroids which have the ability to protect the erythrocytes from oxidative damage as well as possess erythropoietin stimulatory, immune-stimulatory and thrombopoietic stimulatory activities. The phytochemicals also have the ability to alter lipid metabolism. It was therefore concluded that the plant extract, subject to various stipulated assays, moderation and approvals, may be useful in the management of hematological and lipid related disorders.