The status of private supplementary tuition and its effect on education in public secondary schools in Mwala Division of Machakos County, Kenya
Munyao, Koti Cyrus
MetadataShow full item record
For millions of children around the world, formal instruction does not end when the school bell rings to signal the completion of the school day. Many children proceed from their schools, with or without a break, to some form of private tuition. The problem is that, despite the ban on private tuition, most schools, parents and tutors are still implementing private tuition either at schools and other places such as home which leave learners with no time for rest and recreational activities. The purpose of the study was to assess the status of private supplementary tuition and its effect on education in public secondary schools in Mwala Division of Machakos County. The objectives of the study were to examine the magnitude and characteristics of private tuition, factors influencing demand for private tuition, policy and alternative approaches to private tuition and the effect of private tuition on education. The study was based on the human capital theory developed in the 1960s by Nobel Laureate economists, Theodore W. Schultz and Gary Becker. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and targeted 18 principals, 282 teachers and 1431 students making a total population of 1731. A sample of 10 principals, 36 teachers and 147 students was selected using stratified random sampling technique. In-depth questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data. A pilot study was conducted prior to the actual research to determine instrument reliability. Quantitative data from closed ended questionnaire items were analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data from open-ended questionnaire items and interviews were analysed using content analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analysing the data and the findings presented in frequency and percentage tables, graphs and in thematic narratives. The study revealed that there was widespread provision of private tuition in schools which was conducted during school days, weekends and in a few schools, during school holidays/vocations while there was also private tuition targeting individual students. Private tuition took between 2 hours and 1 hour per session. It was also revealed that private tuition involved all classes/forms in most schools and students were required to pay for it. Private tuition was dedicated to syllabus coverage and occasionally revision. Private tuition was also conducted at home, churches, social halls and schools. Demand for private tuition was determined by school administration, need to enhance performance, pressure from parents and students and the need to cover the syllabus on time. Schools had not come up with ways of ensuring that there is no need for private tuition while the Ministry of Education was not pro-active in the enforcement of the ban on private tuition. Private tuition was found to enhance students' academic performance, motivated teachers and enhanced syllabus coverage. The study recommends that schools should minimise time wastage as a result of interruptions of school programmes. School administration should ensure that teachers conduct lessons, and organise sessions for revision within the school timetable, the Ministry of Education through the KICD should review the education curriculum, the government should put in place more effective measures to enforce the ban on private tuition. A similar study should be replicated to other counties. A similar study should also target primary schools and private schools which are also providing private tuition.