Determination of hematological effects of methanolic leaf extract of Vernonia lasiopus and seed extract of Solanum incanum in normal mice
Njagi, Jim Muriithi
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Certain medicinal plants are believed to promote positive health and maintain organic resistance against infection. The use of medicinal plants which are readily available and arguably efficacious would therefore offer a better and affordable alternative for boosting and enhancing health. Assessment of hematological parameters can be used to determine the extent of deleterious effect of foreign compounds including plant extracts on the blood constituents of an animal. Various chemical constituents of Vernonia lasiopus and Solanum incanum are believed to possess therapeutic effects on hematological parameters. However, these effects have not been subjected to systematic studies to substantiate the therapeutic claims made regarding their clinical utility. This study was designed to investigate the hematological effects of methanolic extracts of V. lasiopus and S. incanum in normal mice using the oral route. Leaves of V. lasiopus and ripe fruits of S. incanum were collected from Siakago division, Mbeere North sub-county, Embu County, Kenya. The samples were prepared and extraction was done using methanol. Experimental mice were divided into two groups of five mice each. Group A was administered with 50mg/kgbw body of each extract while group B received lOOmg/kgbw of each extract orally once per two days for a period of fourteen days. Hematological parameters and indices were determined from unclotted blood samples using standard protocols. Presence of various types of phytochemicals was assessed using standard procedures. There was significant increase in erythrocytes and hematocrit counts seven days after oral administration of methanolic leaf extracts of V. lasiopus at the dose levels of 50mg/kgbw and lOOmg/kgbw. Seven and fourteen days .after administration of methanolic seed extracts of S. incanum at the dose levels of 50mg/kgbw, there was significant increase in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit counts while the dose level of 100mg/kgbw caused significant increase in hematocrit count fourteen days after administration of the extracts. The dose level of lOOmg/kgbw caused a significant increase in total white blood cells, neutrophil, and basophil counts seven days after days after administration of methanolic leaf extracts of V. lasiopus. There was a significant increase in levels of total white blood cells, neutrophils and basophil counts seven and fourteen days after administration of methanolic seed extracts of S. incanum at the dose levels of 50mg/kgbw. The dose levels of IOOmg/kgbw methanolic leaf extracts of V. lasiopus caused a significant increase in platelet and plateletcrit after fourteen days of oral administration of the extract while the dose level of 50mg/kgbw of methanolic seed extracts of S. incanum caused a significant increase in platelet, plateletcrit, MPV, and PDW profiles after seven days. Further, the phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic leaf extract of V. lasiopus and seed extract of S. incanum have phytochemicals associated with erythropoietin promoting activity, imrnunostimulatory activities and thrombopoietin stimulation.