Constraints facing the implementation of reverse integration in special primary and secondary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya
Yeri, Neville M. C.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate constraints to the implementation of reverse integration in special primary and secondary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya. It was guided by a set of objectives which were followed up with a corresponding set of research questions. A theoretical framework based on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory was adopted. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that used an exploratory approach to investigate the problem at hand. The target population comprised of 1019 students, 88 teachers as well as 46 non teaching staff, totaling to 1163 respondents. Purposive sampling technique was used to select three schools (42%) out of the seven special schools in the study locale. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 36 students (5%) from the various strata of student’s population. Ultimately, the sample was 71 respondents, representing approximately 10% of the population in the sampled schools. Data was collected using two types of questionnaires one for teaching/non-teaching staff and the other for students. Tools reliability was ascertained through the test re-test method, while content validity was confirmed by the researcher’s supervisors. Analysis of quantitative data was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0, while qualitative data was analyzed descriptively. Descriptive statistics (measure of central tendency) was used to analyze the data from the respondents. Quantitative variables were cross tabulated with the dependent variable of reverse integration including administrative factors; school staffs qualifications, experience and training, status of educational materials in terms of relevance, adequacy and effective use and non academic issues such as policy shifts. The study found out that the reverse integration was a laudable policy that would enhance mutual co-existence between children with special needs and those without special needs. The study also found out that administrative factors greatly influenced the implementation of the reverse integration education policy. The level of experience and professional qualifications of the teaching staff also affected implementation of the policy. Results of the study on the influence of educational materials and facilities showed that most schools lack the resources especially libraries and laboratories. It found out that most of the schools were in dire need of support from all the stakeholders in order to provide emotional, financial and material support to the students. The study recommends that the reverse integration policy’s implementation should be enhanced in order to provide an equal opportunity to all the children. In addition, schools should redouble, their efforts in the provision of a conducive learning experiences for children joining the programme. The study also recommends that a nationwide study be launched in order to find out the current level of pressure and available resources in the schools.