Effects of Dichloromethane-Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Carissa edulis (Forssk) Vahl on Serum Lipid Profiles in Normal Rat Models
Jorum, Obel H.
Machocho, Alex K.
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Assessment of serum lipid profile is required for wellbeing of every individual since the blood can act as pathological reflector and also as an indicator of the physiological state of an animal. Disorders arising from lipid components imbalance are approaching epidemic levels while the methods used to conventionally manage them are not improving hence the need to continually seek alternative methods of management. Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl belongs to the Apocynaceae family. This plant has been used extensively in traditional medicine to manage various diseases including those that are lipids related. This study, therefore, was designed to investigate the effects of Dichloromethane-Methanolic leaf extract of C. edulis on serum lipid profiles. The plant leaves were collected from Siakago-Mbeere North Sub-County, Embu County, Kenya. The samples were prepared and extraction of the active compounds carried out using organic solvents; dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. Experimental rats were divided into four groups each consisting of five normal rats. The groups received oral doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kgbw of the extract while one group was used as control and did not receive any dosage. Blood samples were drawn from the rats at intervals of seven days then the serum lipid profiles were analysed using an auto-analyzer machine. Screening for plants phytochemicals was conducted using the standard recommended procedures. The results of this study showed that DCM-MeOH leaf extract of C. edulis induced general changes in serum lipid profiles of normal rats. The triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly at all the dose levels (p<0.05), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly during this study (p<0.05). Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of various phytochemicals which included alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, terpenes and traces of steroids which have the ability to alter lipid metabolism. It was concluded that the plant extract may be useful in the management of lipid related disorders